printers"). Note that higher-end HP printers (e.g., LaserJet IV) support PostScript directly. Also, Michael Riley reminds us that EPP and ECP printer modes are unsupported. Before you do any of this, try printing a plain text file (such as /etc/motd) to the printer. John Groenveld provides the following instructions for Solaris 8. It assumes you have a working GhostScript with a driver for your printer and that it's attached to /dev/lp1 (/dev/lp0 on some systems). With Solaris 8, USB printers are assigned logical device names /dev/printers/[0..N] The printer queue in the example below is called "lj6l_ps" # Test your driver: /opt/gnu/bin/gs -q -dSAFER -dNOPAUSE -sDEVICE=laserjet -sOutputFile=/dev/lp1 \ /opt/gnu/share/ghostscript/5.50/examples/alphabet.ps # Create the printer: lpadmin -p lj6l_ps -v /dev/lp1 -o nobanner # Create the printer filter definition: cat > /etc/lp/fd/laserjet.fd <Serial Ports." For earlier Solaris versions, or if the steps above don't work, perform the following, as root, to add the second serial port. For other serial ports and internal modems follow the same steps but change the appropriate line in the asy.conf file. This file is located at /kernel/drv/asy.conf (Solaris 8) or /platform/i86pc/kernel/drv/asy.conf (Solaris 2.6 and earlier). Solaris 2.6 and above: Edit file asy.conf with to read: #interrupt-priorities=12; # This line is present in Solaris 8 name="asy" class="sysbus" interrupts=12,4 reg=0x3f8,0,0 ioaddr=0x3f8; ignore-hardware-nodes=1; name="asy" class="sysbus" interrupts=12,3 reg=0x2f8,0,0 ioaddr=0x2f8; Solaris 2.5.1 and earlier: Remove the comment from the following line in file /platform/i86pc/kernel/drv/asy.conf: name="asy" class="sysbus" interrupts=12,3 reg=0x2f8,0,0 ioaddr=0x2f8; For all versions of Solaris: * Save the changed file, asy.conf * Type "touch /reconfigure" * Type "/usr/sbin/reboot" to restart the system. * After you get a message saying syncing file systems and no more [N] characters appear, turn your machine off and then turn it on again. * Verify the device is present with "ls -l /dev/ttyb" * For details and for COM3 and COM4 instructions, see http://access1.Sun.COM/cgi-bin/rinfo2html?228402.faq [Modified from Bruce Riddle's Solarisx86 2.5/Dialup PPP Configs FAQ; updates from Michael Wang] _________________________________________________________________ (6.10) How do I disable Solaris/x86 from probing the UPS on COM2? With the following command, ran as root: # eeprom com2-noprobe=true This (undocumented) option to the eeprom command disables boot-up time probing of COM2 (apparently done to detect modems). The eeprom command alters the Solaris boot sector. If the UPS is connected to a serial port during boot-up time, the UPS may go into self-test or shutdown or recalibrate. An alternate solution is to disconnect the serial cable during booting. With the obvious change, this also works for COM1. See also BugID 4038351. [Thanks to Andy I. McMullin and John D. Groenveld] _________________________________________________________________ (6.11) How do I set up Solaris/x86 to use PPP to connect to an ISP? "Life is too short for bad PPP software." --Celeste Stokely Update (10/2001): I understand aspppd has been removed from Solaris 8. Use pppd instead (see the next question). Setting up PPP with the system-default aspppd could be an exercise in torture. That's because it's based on the old BNU/UUCP communication software, which itself is infamously hard to set up. Of course, the hardware (modem and serial port) has to be set up correctly too. Make sure hardware flow control is enabled. The best documentation on it is Bruce Riddle's PPP Configuration for Solaris/x86 at http://www.riddleware.com/solx86/ppp-config.html Another good guide is at http://www.kempston.net/solaris/ Philip Brown has a script to automate asppp configuration at http://www.bolthole.com/solaris/configppp.sh For pointers to other references, see Stokely's "Serial Port Resources" at http://www.stokely.com/unix.serial.port.resources/ Also see Sun's "Expanding your Network with PPP" in the TCP/IP and Data Communications Administration, at docs.Sun.COM and "SunService Tip Sheet for SunPPP" (InfoDoc ID 11976). Here's some notes that may also help you out with Sun's aspppd: 1. Make sure you have the "Basic Networking" packages installed, otherwise pkgadd SUNWbnur and SUNWbnuu. 2. Insert IP addresses/host names into the /etc/inet/hosts table. Your ISP needs to give you the names or you can look them up on the net. 3. Create /etc/resolv.conf, and add your domainname and nameserver lines. Your provider can provide the domainname (probably name-of-your-isp.com, unless they have a multi-location operation). The DNS nameservers goes on the nameserver lines, 1 per line. 4. Edit /etc/mail/sendmail.cf to use relay mailer "ether". The relay host should be the SMTP server. This hostname needs to be accurate. 5. Most news readers (like xvnews and Netscape) refer to the environment variable NNTPSERVER to find the NNTP server. Set that in your environment before invoking the reader. This can go in your .profile, .cshrc, or whatever, depending on what shell you use. 6. For the actual PPP connection, the only thing that counts is the machine you dial up to (most likely the gateway machine). You'll have to edit the /etc/uucp/{Systems, Dialers, Devices} with things like your preferred modem setup unless you like one of the defaults (one of my character flaws, I guess, I don't like any of them), dialing info for the gateway machine (note that our PPP is broken, and ignores the time-to-call field, disaster for a lot of us), and what serial port you have your modem connected to. Then edit the /etc/asppp.cf file to configure the ipdptp0 interface. Notes for the examples: I have my modem configured to power-on in the mode I like to use for my PPP configuration. DISABLE LOGINS ON THE MODEM PORT. I don't recall the nameserver IP address of my DNS server, so the example has a bogus address for /etc/resolv.conf. I also found that I had to put a delay (\d) at the end of the chat script in /etc/uucp/Systems or I couldn't get connected. Loopback problems and config error problems, caused by the remote system still being in echo mode on the line when my machine started sending the first PPP configure packets. Also, I have yet to find a 2.4 setup where ttymon grabs the line after PPP times out and disconnects (but before the modem has recognized a DTR-down condition (my speculation is that our streams stuff doesn't actually take DTR down), causing the line to essentially be hung. This is avoided by not enabling ttymon on that port. In other words, in keeping with Sun's long tradition, truly bi-directional lines are a crapshoot on Suns. Examples for my home machine: /etc/hosts: 165.154.15.142 MyPCNameGoesHere 165.154.1.1 my-isp 127.0.0.1 localhost /etc/resolv.conf: domainname hookup.net nameserver 165.154.1.7 /etc/mail/sendmail.cf: # (Stuff not included here for brevity) . . . Dmether # (Stuff not included here for brevity) . . . DRmail.tor.hookup.net CRmail.tor.hookup.net # (Stuff not included here for brevity) . . . /etc/uucp/Dialers: wb144 =W-, "" \dAT\r\c OK\r \EATDT\T\r\c CONNECT /etc/uucp/Devices: ACUWB cua/0 - Any wb144 /etc/uucp/Systems (line split for readability; change the phone #): my-isp Any ACUWB 57600 555-2871 "" P_ZERO ogin: MyLoginNameGoesHere \ assword: MyPasswordGoesHere /etc/asppp.cf: ifconfig ipdptp0 plumb MyPCNameGoesHere my-isp netmask 0xffffff00 -trailers up path inactivity_timeout 900 interface ipdptp0 peer_system_name my-isp debug_level 8 default_route [Thanks to Dennis (from Bob's Solaris 2.4 x86 FAQ) and Wyatt Wong] _________________________________________________________________ (6.12) Is there any open source PPP that's easier to use than Sun's aspppd? Yes, PPPd. As you can see, aspppd, the Solaris-bundled ppp product, is difficult to setup and use ("infamous"). Part of the problem is it uses the old BNU/UUCP programs and configuration files, which are too general and weren't really intended for PPP. PPPd, which I use, has been ported to Solaris and is easier to configure, performs better, and is still free. It's available in binary and source from Peter Marelas at http://www.phase-one.com.au/solaris-x86/pppd/ PPPd 2.3.5 works for Solaris 2.6 - 8. More recent versions of PPPd are not required but are available (source only) from ftp://cs.anu.edu.au/pub/software/ppp/ Follow instructions in file README.sol2 to compile. I use PPPD with Solaris 7. PPPD 2.3.5 also works with 2.5.1 and 2.6. This product isn't designed for use with SMP machines. For Solaris 7, you can use the binaries compiled for Solaris 2.6 (not 2.5.1). If you compile on Solaris 7, you need to modify source file common/zlib.c to compile it. Change every definition of variable "u" to "u1". There's 5 occurrences at lines 4215, 4290, 4329, and 4337, and 4347. For example, change "inflate_huft *u[BMAX];" to "inflate_huft *u1[BMAX];". Besides PPPD, mentioned here, Andrew Gabriel mentions there's also DP (for Dialup PPP). DP documentation and source is available from http://www.acn.purdue.edu/dp/ I don't have any personal experience with this software. PPPD Configuration To configure, you set up a chat script to handle the ISP dialog and enter the phone number and other parameters in the pppd options file. Examples I use are below (files are in /etc/ppp unless otherwise mentioned). I removed files chap-secrets and pap-secrets, as I don't need them for my ISP. File connect-errors has error output, if any, from bad connections. File /etc/ppp/ip-down: #!/usr/bin/sh # Turn off IP forwarding /usr/sbin/ndd -set /dev/ip ip_forwarding 0 File /etc/ppp/ip-up: #!/usr/bin/sh # Turn on IP forwarding /usr/sbin/ndd -set /dev/ip ip_forwarding 1 File /etc/ppp/ppp-on: #!/usr/bin/sh # Set up a PPP link PEER=myisp LOCKDEV=ppp0 #PPPDOPTS=-d # uncomment for debugging if [ -f /etc/ppp/$LOCKDEV.pid ] ; then echo "PPP device $LOCKDEV is locked" exit 1 fi /usr/local/bin/pppd $PPPDOPTS call $PEER exit 0 File /etc/ppp/ppp-off: #!/usr/bin/sh # /etc/ppp/ppp-off # Shutdown a PPP link LOCKDEV=ppp0 # If the ppp pid file is present then the program is running. Stop it. if [ -r /etc/ppp/$LOCKDEV.pid ] ; then kill -INT `cat /etc/ppp/$LOCKDEV.pid` # If unsuccessful, ensure that the pid file is removed. if [ ! "$?" = "0" ] ; then echo "removing stale /etc/ppp/$LOCKDEV.pid file." rm -f /etc/ppp/$LOCKDEV.pid exit 1 fi # Success. Terminate with proper status. echo "ppp link $LOCKDEV terminated" exit 0 fi echo "ppp link $LOCKDEV is not active" exit 1 File etc/ppp/peers/myisp: cua1 # modem is connected to /dev/cua1 (cua0 may be a serial mouse) 115200 # bits per second (use 38400 or 57600 if this doesn't work) lock # Use a UUCP-style lock to ensure exclusive access crtscts # use hardware flow control noauth # don't require the ISP to authenticate itself modem # modem control line passive # wait for LCP packets connect '/usr/local/bin/chat -v -f /etc/ppp/peers/chat-myisp' noipdefault # remote PPP server must supply your IP address. # Remove if the remote host doesn't send your IP during # IPCP negotiation and uncomment the next: #204.94.88.94: # our ip address:gateway address (both are optional) defaultroute # use the ISP as our default route File etc/ppp/peers/chat-myisp: ABORT "NO CARRIER" ABORT "NO DIALTONE" ABORT "ERROR" ABORT "NO ANSWER" ABORT "BUSY" ABORT "Username/Password Incorrect" "" "ATZ" OK "ATDT555-2871" CONNECT "" "ogin:" "^Updan" "ssword:" "\qaardvark" The last two files require the most modification. Make sure to remove read permission ("chmod go-r chat-*") from chat-myisp, as it has your login and password information. Messages go to /var/adm/messages. A good PPP session should look something like this: Oct 24 22:47:49 dan.cts.com pppd[1439]: Connect: ppp0 <--> /dev/cua1 Oct 24 22:47:50 dan.cts.com pppd[1439]: local IP address 204.94.88.94 Oct 24 22:47:50 dan.cts.com pppd[1439]: remote IP address 205.163.84.83 Oct 24 23:08:52 dan.cts.com pppd[1439]: Connection terminated. Your "netstat -rn" output should have lines that look similar to this: Destination Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface -------------------- -------------------- ----- ----- ------ --------- 209.68.192.32 204.94.88.94 UH 1 1 ppp0 default 209.68.192.32 UG 1 1 Your "ifconfig ppp0" output should look similar to this: ppp0: flags=10008d1 mtu 1500 index 15 inet 204.94.88.94 --> 209.68.192.32 netmask ffffff00 For debugging pppd, add the -d option after pppd (in file ppp-on), add this line in /etc/syslog.conf (fields must be tab-separated): daemon.* /var/adm/pppd.log and restart syslogd with /etc/init.d/syslog stop; /etc/init.d/syslog start Then, you get the chat script dialog captured to help isolate the problem. Print out and read the docs mentioned above if you have problems. Once the PPP link is working, you can enable DNS hostnames as follows: First, Modify this line in /etc/nsswitch.conf to something like: hosts: files dns Second, add lines similar to this in /etc/resolv.conf: domain PutYourISPDomainNameHere.com nameserver 192.188.72.18 nameserver 192.188.72.21 For more information, See "man pppd" and "man chat" and the FAQ and SETUP files provided with pppd. A helpful step-by-step guide is the Linux PPP HOWTO at http://www.linuxdoc.org/ The configuration file information is the same for Solaris, except change tty references from /dev/ttyS0 - ttyS4 to /dev/cua0 - cua4 .. _________________________________________________________________ (6.13) Is there any commercial PPP that's easier to use? Yes. Solaris sells its "Solstice PPP" product with its server system. It requires a license for the server side (usually an ISP), but not for the client-side. Previously, you had to have access to the Solaris server CDROM to obtain the software. Solstice PPP is now available for free download from the Solaris 8 Admin Pack, http://www.Sun.COM/software/solaris/easyaccess/sol8.html Basically, to set up, you use the GUI program pppinit to set up the PPP link. You start and stop PPP with "/etc/init.d/ppp start" (and stop), as with aspppd, or use the GUI program ppptool. Solstice PPP is documented in the Solstice PPP AnswerBook at http://docs.Sun.COM/ and a easier to set up than aspppd and pppd. Progressive Systems, Inc. sells Morning Star PPP, probably the most successful third-party PPP commercial product. It's available for Solaris/x86 (and several other systems) for a 15-day evaluation from http://www.progressive-systems.com/ _________________________________________________________________ (6.14) Help! My USRobotics Internal modem doesn't work with PPP. If it's a WinModem, you're out of luck--That only works with MS Windoze and then only with special drivers. It's missing critical UART hardware that's emulated in proprietary software and hardware interfaces. WinModems (which run only on Windows) are less expensive to manufacture because they don't include a controller. Instead, they include proprietary drivers for Windows that offload processing to the CPU. For some reason (tell me if you know?), Internal PCI card modems all seem to be WinModems. If you're using aspppd, supplied with stock Solaris, you can either switch to another PPP product that works with USRobotics Internal Sportster modems, such as Solaris PPP (not free) or PPPd (free, see above) or try this: (from Alan Orndorff's "Solaris x86 Resources," http://www.solarisresources.com/): Modify your /etc/uucp/Dialers file in the following manner: Add P_ZERO to your modem definition string to set it to "no parity." E.g, hayes =,-, "" P_ZERO "" \dA\pTE1V1X4Q0S2=255S12=255\r\c OK\r \EATDT\T\r\c CONNECT _________________________________________________________________ (6.15) PPP runs extremely slow. What's wrong? Solaris 2.5.1 patch 101945-34+ has poor TCP performance over slow links, including PPP. Patches for this, Bug ID 1233827, are available from http://developers.Sun.COM/: * Solaris/x86 2.5.1: 103631 (IP) and 103581 (TCP) * Solaris/x86 2.5: 103170 (IP) and 103448 (TCP) Both these patches are in the Recommended Patches set. The "showrev -p" command shows what patches you have installed. [From Bruce Riddle's Solarisx86 PPP FAQ and Casper Dik's Solaris 2 FAQ] _________________________________________________________________ (6.16) How do I configure PPP using Dynamic IP Addresses (DHCP)? If you're using Solaris aspppd, you need a void entry in /etc/hosts and plumb it to do DHCP with PPP. Basically add this line to /etc/inet/hosts: 0.0.0.1 void (Note: for Solaris 2.4 use 0.0.0.0 in lieu of 0.0.0.1) Change the ifconfig line in /etc/asppp.cf to link to void rather than the local machine IP entry in /etc/inet/hosts. Then add "negotiate_address on" to your /etc/asppp.cf file. If you're using the open source pppd, simply don't specify an IP address in your pppd options file. If you're using the commercial Solaris PPP, keep the default of "none" when prompted for your IP address by pppinit. Edit file /platform/i86pc/kernel/drv/asy.conf To use DHCP, either: (1) Add a file /etc/dhcp.ppp0 (where ppp0 is the name of your TCP interface shown in ifconfig; usually le0 for Ethernet) with the following suggested line: wait 60 Or (2) Edit files /etc/hostname.ppp0 (where ppp0 is the interface name) and /etc/nodename to be both empty (0-length) files, then /usr/sbin/reboot. For more information, see http://docs.Sun.COM/ (search for "DHCP") and http://www.rite-group.com/consulting/solaris_dhcp.html [Thanks to Bruce Riddle, Wyatt Wong, and Ed Ravin] _________________________________________________________________ (6.17) How do I configure my SoundBlaster card? If you have a SoundBlaster 16 PCI or SoundBlaster PCI128 card, download and install Philip Brown's Solaris sbpci driver available at http://www.bolthole.com/solaris/sbpci/ If the above doesn't apply (which is the case for older ISA cards), try the following procedure for Solaris 2.6 and higher. Become root and type: "touch /reconfigure; /usr/sbin/reboot". If this works, you should see two links under /dev/sound and be able to play .au files with audiotool (2.5.1 instructions follow): 1. Run "prtconf -pv" to print the current system configuration: Node 0xf5a33500 compatible: 'pnpCTL,00E4,0' + 'sbpro' dma-channels: 00000001.00000005 interrupts: 00000005 model: 'Audio' name: 'pnpCTL,0045' pnp-csn: 00000001 reg: 8e8c00e4.19f815e8.00000000.00000001.00000220.00000010 .00000001.00000330.00000002.00000001.00000388.00000004 unit-address: 'pnpCTL,00E4,19f815e8' The device ID I want is CTL0045. This comes from the name line "pnpCTL,0045". There were a couple of other 'pnpXXX,DDDD' devices. This was the only one with the model "Audio". 2. According to InfoDoc 15830, I used "CTL,0045" from above and updated /platform/i86pc/boot/solaris/devicedb/master as follows (no comma): < CSC0000|PNPB002|PNPB003|CTL0031|ESS1681 sbpro oth all sbpro.bef "Sound Blaster" - ---[ref] > CTL0045|CSC0000|PNPB002|PNPB003|CTL0031|ESS1681 sbpro oth all sbpro.bef[/ref] "Sound Blaster" 3. Rebooted and rebuilt my devices: # /touch /reconfigure; /usr/sbin/reboot 4. I also ran the Device Configuration Assistant (DCA) -- press Escape as soon as the machine boots, it will prompt you -- just to verify that the Sound Blaster showed up in the device list. It did as "Sound Blaster." Since I ran the DCA boot will get the -r arg anyways. 5. When I boot /dev/audio was present. Yeah! I am currently listening to the Sunday Blues on real audio at http://www.sunday-blues.com/listen.html. If the above procedure fails for Solaris 2.6 or 7 (as it did for me), continue with the procedure below for Solaris 2.5.1. For Solaris 2.5.1: Edit file /platform/i86pc/kernel/drv/sbpro.conf as instructed in the file (note that the instructions were removed for Solaris 2.6 and above!). Usually, it's just adding "dma-channels-1,5" to the appropriate name="sbpro" line. Then "/touch /reconfigure; /usr/sbin/reboot" For example, given a SoundBlaster 16 or AWE32, the following specifies IRQ 5, Audio I/O Address 0x220, and 8 & 16 bit DMA channels 1 & 5: name="sbpro" class="sysbus" interrupts=5,2 reg=-1,9,0,1,0x220,0x14 type="SB16" dma-channels=1,5; For a SoundBlaster PRO, the entry looks like this (one DMA channel: 1): name="sbpro" class="sysbus" interrupts=5,2 dma-channels=1 reg=-1,1,0,1,0x220,0x14 type="SBPRO"; Leave the other numbers alone. Make sure these resources are configured for the card and are not used by other devices. For example, NICs and Parallel Ports often use IRQ 5, and token ring cards often use IOA 0x220. If you get an invalid interrupt message, try using "interrupts=5" in lieu of "interrupts=5,2", where "5" is your IRQ. For more information, type "man sbpro." A commercial alternative to the above is to use 4Front Technologies' Open Sound System (OSS). It's available for a free trial for about 10 days. After that, it's $30, but well-worth the savings in time. For cards newer than SoundBlaster 16/32/Pro, it's the only choice. To use, download the tar.Z file from http://www.opensound.com/, extract, and run the install menu ./oss-install and let it auto-detect the sound card. Reboot (or at least sync), then run "soundon" to enable the driver manually (see file oss/Readme for how to enable automatically). [Thanks to Park Byoung-Gi, Steve Krapp, Chris, Dave, Norma, Juergen Keil, & Philip Brown] _________________________________________________________________ (6.18) How do I enable the audio output from my CDROM to my SBPRO card? Start audiocontrol then select "Record." Ha ha, "Record" really means "Sound Source ;-)." In the audiocontrol record window, select "Internal CD" (other choices are Microphone or Line in). You must have audiocontrol running before starting your favorite CD player application. I use workman, but you can try other open source players, such as xmcd. I haven't found a GUI CD player built-in with Solaris. Anyone? Robert Muir reports you can use this from the command line (non-X): audiorecord -p internal-cd /dev/null & [Thanks to Eugene Bobin and Robert Muir] _________________________________________________________________ (6.19) Is Solaris/x86 Year 2000 (Y2K) compliant? Solaris 8 is Y2K OK out-of-the-box (so far). Solaris 7, 2.6, 2.5.1, 2.5, and 2.4 can be made Y2K-safe by applying a set of Y2K patches. These patches are available at http://sunsolve.Sun.COM/ Note these patches are required even though the January 1, 2000 rollover date has passed (it will still be Y2K or later!). Solaris/x86 Y2K information is available at http://www.Sun.COM/y2000/ Of the Y2K patches, only the make and sccs patch are in the Recommended Patches set. For Solaris/x86 Y2K recommended patches, see http://access1.Sun.COM/patch.y2k/ For the entire Y2K patch cluster for each Solaris release, see http://sunsolve.Sun.COM/pub-cgi/show.pl?target=patches/y2k-patche s This latter link may be restricted to registered or licensed users. I certainly didn't pay any money to access it though (other than the Solaris license). Y2K Patches exist for Solaris Intel 7, 2.6, 2.5.1, 2.5, and 2.4. Note that not all Y2K patches are in the "recommended" patch cluster for each release. The "showrev -p" command shows what patches you have installed. Anyone can download recommended patches. Non-recommended patches are not as serious and generally require registration to access and download. _________________________________________________________________ (6.20) Can I use Solaris/x86 to setup a "headless" server? The answer is yes, it can be done, but it's BIOS dependent, since many BIOS chips won't boot up the system without the keyboard and video card. The console can be configured to go to serial ports as described below. Removal of video card is also BIOS dependent. Setup steps: only) set the serial line's Data Set Ready (DSR) to HIGH. If you don't--it won't boot. This can be done with a NULL modem or with the following 25-pin or 9-pin pinouts: DTE A DTE B 25 (9) 25 (9) ------ ------ FG 1 (-) ------ 1 (-) FG TD* 2 (3) ------ 3 (2) RD RD 3 (2) ------ 2 (3) TD* CTS 5 (8) -+---- 20 (4) DTR* DSR 6 (6) -| +- 5 (8) CTS CD 8 (1) -+ |- 6 (6) DSR DTR* 20 (4) ----+- 8 (1) CD SG 7 (5) ------ 7 (5) SG RTS* 4 (7) (nc) 4 (7) RTS* RI 22 (9) (nc) 22 (9) RI * DTE (terminal/computer) driven (nc) = no connection If the NULL modem is "incomplete", the boot process hangs shortly after starting the asy driver (after the message "asy0 is /isa/asy@1,3f8" or similar asy1/2f8 message). For details, see http://www.freebsd.org/handbook/hw-io.html ttyb): eeprom input-device=ttya output-device=ttya (just like SPARC? ;-) Update: Andrew Schwabecher reports that using "ttya" doesn't work. Instead, he adds these entries to /boot/solaris/bootenv.rc: setprop output-device com1 setprop input-device com1 For 2.5.1, add "set console = 1" to /etc/system. Steve Rikli adds the following simpler 3-pin alternative, in lieu of the above: I've found that, while the full NULL modem pinouts work just fine, a simple 3-pin (TD/RD/SG) pinout scheme will also work in Solaris 8 by issuing eeprom commands thusly: eeprom output-device=ttya eeprom input-device=ttya eeprom ttya-ignore-cd=true The kicker is the "-ignore-cd" variable, which doesn't seem to be present by default on a Solaris x86 install, unlike Solaris for SPARC hardware. But setting it does work and it does persist across reboot/power-cycle. In the absence of "ttya-ignore-cd=true" one does indeed need a full NULL modem pinout. PC Weasel 2000, at http://www.realweasel.com/intro.html is a PCI board that emulates VGA cards over a serial line. This provides a serial console interface for PC-class computers transparent to the operating system. This is useful for BIOS configuration and the Solaris Device Configuration Assistant (DCA) remotely. Of course, you can't run CDE with it, but once Solaris is up, you can use a regular serial port. Herb Peyerl, one of the company founders, adds: "I've tested this card under 2.8 and it works fine. There isn't a Solaris Watchdog driver for the Weasel yet and sometimes the text attributes are a little funky, but it's certainly usable." [Thanks to John Weekley, Scott Wedel, Kenneth Wagner, Andy Spitzer, Kai O'Yang, Michael Wang, David Page, Andrew Schwabecher, Steve Rikli, Richard Shuford, and Herb Peyerl] _________________________________________________________________ (6.21) Can I get a Sun-style keyboard (Ctrl & Caps Lock reversed) for S/x86? PFU America, http://www.pfuca.com/, sells it's "Happy Hacking Keyboard" for $49. It's Sun type 5 keyboard with only the essential 60 keys. NuData's Workstation Express catalog has a Sun PC-style type 5 keyboard. The keyboard feels much more solid that a typical PC keyboard. It didn't work my Toshiba Tecra 740CDT laptop, but works for my desktop computer. The keyboard can be ordered from their web page at http://www.nudata.com/keyboard.htm The part number is #IZ100, and it needs a PS/2 (#IZ102) adapter. Cost is $85 + $20 for the adapter. You can order a Sun USB keyboard and mouse that works quite well with Solaris 8 Intel. They are available from Sun Store, http://store.sun.com/, with the following part numbers: * US/Unix Type 6 USB Keyboard: 320-1273 ($65) * 3-button "crossbow" USB Mouse: 370-3632 ($35) If you don't want to buy any new hardware, you can use just software to switch Control_L and Caps_Lock keys. Create file $HOME/.xmodmaprc with: remove Lock = Caps_Lock remove Control = Control_L keysym Control_L = Caps_Lock keysym Caps_Lock = Control_L add Lock = Caps_Lock add Control = Control_L and add "xmodmap $HOME/.xmodmaprc" to your $HOME/.dtprofile file. For the adventurous electrician, there's a web page to show how to build and program a PCB to to drive a Sun Type 5/6 keyboard from a PC. This includes a PCB mask, source code, and instructions. See http://www.buzzard.org.uk/jonathan/ [Thanks to Don Christensen and Ian Hall-Beyer] _________________________________________________________________ (6.22) Can I run multiple terminals on the console of Solaris x86 like those supported on Linux, FreeBSD, Interactive Unix, and SCO? Maybe. Starting with Solaris/x86 2.4, they are no longer configured during the installation, but they still work if configured afterwards by hand. Starting with Solaris 8, they are removed. If you have Solaris 2.4 to 7, you can configure multiple virtual terminals back in yourself as follows: First, as root, verify the device's major number with grep: # grep -i chanmux /etc/name_to_major chanmux Second, verify the /dev/vt* entries are present (with ls -l /dev/vt*). If not present, add the /dev entries, substituting whatever you found with the grep output for : mknod /dev/vt01 c 1 mknod /dev/vt02 c 2 etc... Copy and paste the following to /etc/inittab (after the "co:" entry), and verify no line breaks are added: v1:234:respawn:/usr/lib/saf/ttymon -g -h -p "VT01 Login: " -T AT386 -d /dev/vt0 1 -l console v2:234:respawn:/usr/lib/saf/ttymon -g -h -p "VT02 Login: " -T AT386 -d /dev/vt0 2 -l console v3:234:respawn:/usr/lib/saf/ttymon -g -h -p "VT03 Login: " -T AT386 -d /dev/vt0 3 -l console v4:234:respawn:/usr/lib/saf/ttymon -g -h -p "VT04 Login: " -T AT386 -d /dev/vt0 4 -l console v5:234:respawn:/usr/lib/saf/ttymon -g -h -p "VT05 Login: " -T AT386 -d /dev/vt0 5 -l console v6:234:respawn:/usr/lib/saf/ttymon -g -h -p "VT06 Login: " -T AT386 -d /dev/vt0 6 -l console v7:234:respawn:/usr/lib/saf/ttymon -g -h -p "VT07 Login: " -T AT386 -d /dev/vt0 7 -l console To get init to reread inittab, either /usr/sbin/reboot, or issue the command: /usr/sbin/init q Now, Alt-PrintScreen F1 switches to VT01, Alt-PrintScreen F2 switches to VT02, etc. (if activated as above) Alt-PrintScreen P switches to the previous screen. Alt-PrintScreen N switches to the next screen. Alt-PrintScreen H switches to the X console screen (not Alt-PrintScreen F8). Press "Alt" and "PrintScreen" together then the next key (e.g., F3). This is also documented in Sun's FAQ 2245-02, http://access1.Sun.COM/cgi-bin/rinfo2html?244502.faq Sun's FAQ has three typos. In Step 2's example, replace the second "mknod /dev/vt01 c 1" with "mknod /dev/vt02 c 1" In Step 3, replace "co:" in the FAQ with "v1:" to "v7:" and remove the line breaks between "-T" and "AT386". The "PrintScreen" key is the same as the "SysReq" key. If you're using XFree86, you need to leave one VT open (usually VT07); otherwise XFree86 will not run. [Adapted from Casper Dik's Solaris 2 FAQ; XFree86 info from Gantry Zettler] _________________________________________________________________ (6.23) How do I upgrade my video graphics card? First see if you have the driver installed. They are listed when you run kdmconfig. If the driver is present, configure with kdmconfig. If it's a new card, see if it's listed in the latest driver updates for your Solaris release on http://access1.Sun.COM/drivers/ If listed, install the update. kdmconfig is ran automatically at the end of the update installation. Before changing cards, choose, from kdmconfig, the 16-color 640x480 VGA setting, which is the lowest-common denominator for VGA video cards. After switching cards and rebooting (verifying the VGA setting works for the new card) choose a higher setting with kdmconfig. See the Update Guide that comes with the update on specific installation instructions for the update. Generally, it's done as follows: (assuming the image downloaded from access1.Sun.COM is named vdu11image.Z and is in /tmp), type as root: # cd /tmp # uncompress du11vid2.Z ; cat du11vid1.bin du11vid2 | cpio -icvdum # zcat vdu11image.Z | cpio -icvdumB # ./installdu.sh _________________________________________________________________ (6.24) How to I burn a CD-R or CD-RW with Solaris? Use cdrecord (free) or commercial software. SCSI CD-R (Record once) and CD-RW (Read-Write many times) drives tend to be better supported than ATAPI drives. For details, see the Sun CD-ROM FAQ at http://saturn.tlug.org/suncdfaq/ and Jörg Schilling's cdrecord page at: http://www.fokus.gmd.de/research/cc/glone/employees/joerg.schilli ng/private/cdrecord.html _________________________________________________________________ (6.25) Is IPv6 available for Solaris/x86? Yes, starting in Solaris 8. See http://www.Sun.COM/solaris/ipv6/. For general IPv6 information, see http://www.ipv6.org/. If you wish to connect to the 6bone, an experimental, mostly tunneled IPv6 network, see http://www.6bone.net/ _________________________________________________________________ (6.26) Is IPsec available for Solaris/x86? Yes, for Solaris 8. See volume 3 of the System Administrator's Guide at http://docs.Sun.COM/ for more configuration information. Solaris 8 IPSec supports AH (authentication) and ESP (encryption) headers, and "shared secrets" (manual keying), but not automatic (ISAKMP or IKE) keying. Solaris 9 supports IKE. Adam Barclay adds these comments: * The ESP portion is not installed by default. You have to download supplemental encryption packages (SUNWcry, SUNWcryr, etc) from Sun http://www.sun.com/software/solaris/encryption/ * ipseckey is broken under Solaris 8 10/00 and at this point there doesn't appear to be a patch. In the meantime, I use an earlier release. * ndd queries may give misleading results if ipseckey hasn't been run. As a reminder, some countries prohibit (e.g., France or Russia) the use or possession of encryption software. _________________________________________________________________ (6.27) Is Kerberos 5 available for Solaris/x86? Yes, for Solaris 8. See volume 3 of the System Administrator's Guide at http://docs.Sun.COM/ for more configuration information. The configuration files reside at /etc/krb5 and /var/krb5 and the binary files at /usr/krb5 and /usr/lib/krb5. Make sure you answer "y" to whether you want Kerberos during your Solaris install. Then, install SEAM (Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism, what Solaris calls Kerberos) from the Solaris 8 Admin Pack, freely downloadable from http://www.Sun.COM/software/solaris/easyaccess/sol8.html _________________________________________________________________ (6.28) Does Solaris x86 support multiple processors? Yes. Solaris x86 automatically detects multiple processors. The limit is at least 8 according to the HCL and by observation. The theoretical kernel limit (_ncp) is 21. Due to bus conflicts, there's diminishing returns as you increase the number of procs. psrinfo(1M) will print the status of your processors, mpstat(1M) will report the CPU usages, and psradm(1M) can be used to take processors offline. Some people have had problems with Solaris "seeing" the extra processors, with at least one type of motherboard (Compaq?). They had success with going into the BIOS utility and setting OS type to "other" for "Solaris". With most motherboards no special BIOS settings are required. Likewise, Solaris x86 also supports Intel's Hyperthreading (multiple logical processors). This is because most or all of the additional support required is in the motherboard and not Solaris. [Thanks to John Groenveld, Juergen Keil, Bob Palowoda, Bruce Alder, and Michael VanLoon] _________________________________________________________________ (6.29) How do I uncompress a .gz file? With "gzip -d" (or gunzip, which is gzip linked to gzip). Solaris 8 has gzip. Solaris 7 or earlier does not come with gzip (it doesn't have zip either--only unzip). Gzip is available as a pre-compiled package from http://www.sunfreeware.com/ (use "pkgadd -d packageFileName" to install) and also as a tar file (to extract, type "uncompress gzip*Z; tar xvf gzip*.tar") at ftp://ftp.netscape.com/pub/unsupported/gnu/gzip-1.2.4.x86-sun-sol aris2.4.tar.Z _________________________________________________________________ (6.30) Why doesn't /usr/bin/cc work? Because it's just a front-end "stub" for the unbundled C compiler sold by Sun (SunPro C). You can also get the free GNU C compiler, gcc, in pkg add format from various locations, including the Solaris Software Companion CD and http://www.sunfreeware.com/. If you install gcc, I recommend that you rename or compress /usr/bin/cc and softlink (ln -s) /usr/local/bin/gcc (or /opt/sfw/bin/gcc or wherever it is) to /usr/bin/cc. By default, Solaris comes with support tools (such as make and libraries) in /usr/ccs/bin, /usr/ccs/lib and usr/include. If not, add the appropriate packages. For more information, see the "Software Development" section in Casper Dik's Solaris 2 FAQ. _________________________________________________________________ (6.31) How do you get PGP 2.6.2 to compile on Solaris/x86? PGP, or Pretty-good Privacy, is strong-encryption software for encrypting, decrypting, and digitally-signing files and data. I would steer clear of PGP 5 as it has compatibility problems. First, check to see if your version of PGP 2.6.2 has a bug. In file src/crypto.c, function make_signature_certificate(), the line: "byte . outbuf[MAX_BYTE_PRECISION+2];" To compile, change file makefile, at around line 116, as follows: $(CPP) $(ASMDEF) 80386.S > _80386.s to $(CPP) $(ASMDEF) 80386.S | grep -v '^# ' > _80386.s (Don't forget the leading tab character, cntl-i). Next, type: cd rsaref/install/unix; make; cd ../../../src; make solx86gcc (if you're using the Sun WorkShop/Sun ONE compilers, change "gcc" to "cc" and remove "-traditional-cpp" in file makefile). I recommend you consider using GPG instead of PGP. GPG, Gnu Privacy Guard, is actively being maintained and is compatible with PGP. See http://www.gnupg.org/ As a reminder, the US Government considers PGP, GPG, and other strong-encryption software a "munition" and prohibits the export of PGP software to countries other than the US and Canada without an export license. Certain other governments (e.g., France or Russia) even prohibit possession of encryption software. To use PGP, I hightly recommend Garfinkel's book, PGP: Pretty Good Privacy [Makefile patch from Joe Shamblin] _________________________________________________________________ (6.32) How do you connect Solaris to my cable modem? See also the next question on RoadRunner. At least for the the East Brunswick, NJ, servers, I had the easiest time with DHCP (not the static setup): /etc/hosts: 127.0.0.1 localhost CCxxxxx-A # where CCxxxxx-A is your hostname 24.x.x.x CCxxxxx-A loghost # where 24.x.x.x is your assigned I P /etc/nsswitch.conf: hosts: files dns /etc/resolv.conf domain ebnsk1.nj.home.com nameserver 24.3.196.33 nameserver 24.3.196.33 /etc/dhcp.elx0 (empty file) /etc/hostname.elxl0 (empty file) NOTE: replace "elxl0" with your NIC device name No /etc/defaultdomain, /etc/defaultrouter, or /etc/netmasks files are used. This info is handled by DHCP. Reboot and you're hooked up. Here's my (partially disguised) netstat -rn and ifconfig -a outputs: $ netstat -rn Routing Table: Destination Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface -------------------- -------------------- ----- ----- ------ --------- 24.x.x.0 24.x.x.x U 3 2 elxl0 224.0.0.0 24.x.x.x U 3 0 elxl0 default 24.x.x.1 UG 0 44 127.0.0.1 127.0.0.1 UH 0 236 lo0 $ ifconfig -a lo0: flags=849 mtu 8232 inet 127.0.0.1 netmask ff000000 elxl0: flags=4843 mtu 1500 inet 24.x.x.x netmask ffffff00 broadcast 24.x.x.255 [Thanks to Alan Lucero.] _________________________________________________________________ (6.33) How do you setup Solaris to use RoadRunner's cable modem service? RoadRunner uses General Instrument's SURFboard or other cable modem hooked up to a coax cable on one side and a straight-through Ethernet cable on the other side. The real throughput is about 6-MB/sec. on downlinks and 768KB/sec. on uplinks. The cable modem looks like a router to your computer. RoadRunner configures home systems with Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), which provides the IP address, default route, and name servers. RoadRunner only supports Windows and Macs, but it works fine with Solaris (they just won't help you setup or diagnose Solaris DHCP). You need Solaris 2.6 or higher for DHCP. To set it up for Solaris, follow these steps, as root: 1. "touch /etc/dhcp.iprb0" (replace the ".iprb0" with whatever the ethernet interface for your system might be, as shown by "ifconfig -a") 2. "cp /dev/null /etc/hostname.iprb0". You need to make *SURE* that this file is EMPTY - otherwise, DHCP configuration won't work. 3. Make sure that /etc/inet/hosts only has one line in it, the one containing "127.0.0.1 localhost". Any other lines will be ignored, and any additional necessary lines will be added by the DHCP client at boot time. 4. "touch /etc/notrouter" - this creates a file to tell Solaris that your system will not be performing routing or packet-forwarding duties (if that's the case in your situation). If it already exists, good. Leave it be. 8-) 5. "cp /dev/null /etc/defaultrouter" - since the DHCP client software will automatically put the needed entries in this file, we just need to make sure that it exists as an empty file. If it already exists, rename it and create the empty file in its place. 6. "cp /dev/null /etc/resolv.conf" - again, the necessary entries will be added by the DHCP client. If you already have this file, rename it and create an empty file in its place. 7. Edit the file /etc/nsswitch.conf, and look at the "hosts:" line. By default, it reads "files"; change it to read "hosts: files dns". This will enable your machine to resolve addresses using DNS, the Domain Name System. Once you've performed these steps, your machine is ready to get its networking information via DHCP. The easiest way to do this is to reboot your machine. You will see status messages during boot about the DHCP client, this is normal. Once the machine is booted type the "ifconfig -a" command. You will see output similar to this: $ ifconfig -a lo0: flags=849 mtu 8232 inet 127.0.0.1 netmask ff000000 iprb0: flags=4843 mtu 1500 inet 24.93.53.4 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 24.93.53.255 ether 8:0:20:1b:1:72 The entry we're concerned about is iprb0 (lo0 is the dummy loopback interface); just make sure that its configured via DHCP, and that an IP address and broadcast address was assigned. You can also check the /etc/resolv.conf and /etc/defaultrouter files to make sure they were configured by the DHCP client. Type "nslookup sun.drydog.com" to test that /etc/nsswitch.conf and /etc/resolv.conf are setup correctly for DNS lookups. If not, they may need to be hand-edited with values provided by your ISP. These files are documented in nsswitch.conf(4) and resolv.conf(4). The resolv.conf needs to have "domain" and "nameserver" lines. Type "netstat -rn" to see if there's a "default" destination configured in /etc/defaultrouter and type "ping sun.drydog.com" to verify routing is OK. Use "traceroute sun.drydog.com" to diagnose routing problems. Type "hostname" to see if it says "unknown." If so, DHCP did not provide a hostname. One workaround is to edit /etc/init.d/network and replace all occurrences of "unknown" with your real hostname. This information is adapted from a web page by Bill Bradford at http://home.austin.rr.com/sunhelp/rr/solarisrr.html. Some (older) RoadRunner setups may still require a RoadRunner login program. This is explained in that link. RoadRunner information is at http://www.rr.com/ and help is at http://help.rr.com/ The Unofficial RR FAQ is at http://members.tripod.com/~tlarrow/rrfaq.htm For generic cable modem information, see the e-zine article "xDSL and cable modems" referenced in the previous question on @Home service. The article covers instructions on enabling Solaris with a cable ISP. _________________________________________________________________ (6.34) How do I force the speed and/or duplex of my network interfaces (ndd(1M) doesn't work)? No x86 driver can be interfaced via ndd(1M). The only way to set speed/duplex is via the NIC's driver.conf(4). iprb(7D) on Solaris 8 suggests that you can specify speed/duplex for multiple instances via ForceSpeedDuplex option. For other drivers, you'll need to specify each instance per driver.conf(4). Finally, for most people, auto-negotiating works as expected. Having to hard-code values may indicate cabling or switch problems. _________________________________________________________________ (6.35) Why can't I create a home directory under /home? For Solaris, /home is not an on-disk file system, it is a file system under the control of the automounter, and only the automounter can create directories/files in it. If you don't want the automounter to manage /home, then remove the "/home" entry from /etc/auto_master (and issue the command "automount -v" to force the file to be reread, or reboot). However, the typical setup for Solaris is to locate user's home directories in /export/home. /home is intended to be where all users' home directories appear regardless of which machine they are really located on--by virtue of the automounter and auto_home map. This makes your home directory always appear in the same place regardless of which machine you login to, and regardless of which server the sysadmin decides to move your home directory. If you are not part of a network with workstations and servers, this may look strange. If you want to, as a demonstration, you can set up a standalone workstation to operate this way, as follows. (I'm assuming you still have the default setup of /home under the control of the automounter.) Create a user with a home directory in /export/home, say, /export/home/andrew, so that the directory is correctly created with ..profile, .login, etc in it. Put the following line in /etc/auto_home: andrew cucumber:/export/home/andrew (substitute your user name for 'andrew' and your hostname for 'cucumber'). If there is an "+auto_home" entry in there, comment it out. Make the automounter reread the files: "automount -v". You should now be able to "ls /home/andrew" and see the files there which are in /export/home/andrew. If you issue the command "/usr/sbin/mount -p", you will see that /export/home/andrew has been mounted on /home/andrew (by the automounter). Normally this would be an NFS mount to a remote server, but in this case the system has spotted that is it attempting to NFS mount itself and uses the loop-back filesystem instead (lofs) which avoids the NFS overhead when the filesystem is on the same machine. Finally, to complete the use of /home, you should change Andrew's entry in the /etc/passwd file such that the home directory is /home/andrew. In a networked environment, you also need to add /export/home to the /etc/dfs/dfstab file so that it is available for other clients to mount. Also, the /etc/passwd file and /etc/auto_master file (and much more besides) would be obtained using naming services from a single networked copy, so you would only need to set this up once whatever the size of your network, not once per workstation. [Thanks to Andrew Gabriel] _________________________________________________________________ (6.36) Is Veritas file system available for Solaris Intel? Only through NCR Corporation. [Thanks to Bob Palowoda] _________________________________________________________________ (6.37) How to I use Zip and Jazz Drives for Solaris Intel? Iomega's Zip and Jazz Drives are supported by the Solaris 8 volume manager. For example, with a ATAPI Zip100 or Zip250 drive, run "volcheck" and it gets mounted as /rmdisk/zip0 If that doesn't work, see if you can mount it manually (if DOS formatted). For example: # Master on second ATAPI controller: /usr/sbin/mount -F pcfs /dev/dsk/c1t0d0p0:c /mnt # Slave on first ATAPI controller: /usr/sbin/mount -F pcfs /dev/dsk/c0t0d0p0:d /mnt For Solaris 7 and older, Iomega has instructions on how to install and use them at http://www.iomega.com/support/documents/2019.html The hardware installation is the same as for MS DOS/Windows systems. Once installed, use the "mount" command to access the drives. See the question below on mounting DOS filesystems. Note that external drives with the parallel port connection are not supported. This requires a specialized driver. [Thanks to Chase for the s8 update] _________________________________________________________________ (6.38) How to I use Linux NIC drivers for Solaris Intel? Sun has released (9/2000) a free network driver porting kit to port Linux PCI-based network drivers to Solaris Intel. The kit includes, as examples, ported Linux drivers for the Intel EEPro100 and the Digital "Tulip" 2104x/2114x chip (a reliable chip used by the Netgear FA-310-TX, SMC EtherPower, Kingston EtherX, D-Link DFE, and other lower-cost cards) For further information, see http://www.sun.com/solaris/ndpkit.html _________________________________________________________________ (6.39) How to I add color to "ls" or "vi"? For "ls" you need the GNU "fileutils" version of ls. Obtain the binary from http://www.sunfreeware.com/ or compile it yourself from source from http://www.gnu.org/ I only use "ls" out of all the utilities in the package and install it in /usr/local/bin/ls. I then use this alias: alias ls='/usr/local/bin/ls --color=auto' (remove the "=" for *csh shells). For vi, I use vim (or gvim for X Windows). It is also available from http://www.sunfreeware.com/ or directly from http://www.vim.org/. You may need to add "syntax on" in your $HOME/.vimrc file to enable syntax coloring. If color output still doesn't appear, for either of these, make sure your terminal emulator supports color (e.g., dtterm) and that your $TERM is set correctly. To verify you can display color, copy, paste, and execute this line in your shell prompt (you should see the letters "blue" highlighted in blue): /bin/echo '\033[0m\033[01;34mblue\033[0m' _________________________________________________________________ (6.40) How to I move the disk containing Solaris from the ATAPI primary master controller to the secondary controller or slave connector (or both)? * Move the disk with Solaris to the new location (secondary master controller or primary or secondary slave controller). * Boot from the "1 of 2" Solaris installation CDROM * mount the root boot partition at /mnt * Reconfigure the device tree: drvconfig -r /mnt/devices devlinks -r /mnt disks -r /mnt Verify that the links /dev/dsk/c1d0s* to ../../devices/* exist. * Type "rm /etc/path_to_install" (or remove all lines but comments in this file) * Edit file /boot/solaris/bootenv.rc. For example if you're moving from the primary master to secondary master, change "ide@0" to "ide@1": setprop bootpath '/pci@0,0/pci-ide@4,1/ide@0/cmdk@0,0:a' to setprop bootpath '/pci@0,0/pci-ide@4,1/ide@1/cmdk@0,0:a' * Remove the CDROM and /usr/sbin/reboot (if you removed /etc/path_to_install then, at the booting Solaris prompt, type "b -a") Once Solaris is on the secondary master, you must enable booting to it. Here's three methods: * Change the BIOS settings to boot to D: (the secondary master) * Boot from the DCA diskette on A: and choose the secondary master device. * If you have Linux LILO on the primary master, you can add an entry to /etc/lilo.conf similar to the following (and type /sbin/lilo on Linux to re-read the new lilo.conf file): # Solaris 2.7 in secondary master booted by Linux Red Hat 6.1 # /boot/chain.b simply starts the boot sector on the specified partition. # /dev/hdc1 is the first partition on the third (hdc) disk. other = /dev/hdc1 loader = /boot/chain.b label = solaris [Thanks to Michael Wang and Alexander Yu] _________________________________________________________________ (6.41) I've installed Solaris using Sun's brain dead disk slice defaults. How do I modify my slices? You don't. It's too late now, but you should have read the recommendations on disk partitions and sizes in section 4 of this FAQ. Solaris (unless you're running under Veritas) doesn't support modifying slices without destroying data on the entire slice. Your options are (in order of ease): * Reinstall and choose your own custom layout. * Create softlinks or local mounts to filesystems with more free space and move the files. E.g. for /opt: "mv opt/export/home" and "mount localhost:/export/home/opt /opt" or "ln -s /export/home/opt /opt * Backup, boot install media, and run format, newfs, & restore [Thanks to John D. Groenveld] _________________________________________________________________ (6.42) How do I mirror root with Disksuite when /boot is a separate fdisk partition? You don't. Disksuite only supports mirroring ufs filesystems, so in order to mirror /boot, it should be part of the root (/) slice inside Sun's fdisk partition. Sun's default install will create a separate 10MB "x86 Boot" fdisk partition which is mounted as pcfs. If you already have Disksuite running the solution is as follows: Start with all the mirrors in place except for the :boot partition and had identical layouts on both disks. 1. Back up all my important stuff. 2. Use metadb to delete the state db's on the Disk 1 and Disk 2 ( I have Disk 3 and Disk 4 for the time being). 3. Get a tar backup of /boot directory and save it in / (root) 4. metadetach and metaclear all the Submirror's from the Disksuite db's on disk 2. 5. Recreate Disk 2 Partition table (using fdisk) to be 100% Solaris and rebuild Solaris Partition(Slice) table (using prtvtoc/fmthard) 6. Re-mirror Disk 2 So it's almost identical to how it was at the beginning, except the x86 partition table is now one big Solaris partition. I.e., starting at the very beginning of the disk. This is very important, otherwise the bootblock installation won't work. 7. Untar the boot directory tar file so now i've /boot ufs mirror under the / mount. 8. Do step 4 on Disk 1. 9. Do step 5 on Disk 1. ambiguous on this, but the Sunsolve doc says it must be run on slice 2 [it's obvious if you think about it]). the / fs. [Thanks to "Nick" via John D. Groenveld] _________________________________________________________________ (6.43) Is ISDN supported for Solaris x86? ISDN is hard to setup and slow compared to cable-modem service or even DSL. However, ISDN is popular and available in Europe. Some old SPARCstations had ISDN support built in. However, there are no Sun-supplied drivers other than for these machines. There are third-party drivers for Solaris x86 from: * Brooktrout Technology, http://www.brooktrout.com, for it's T1/E1 WAN Controller * http://www.teles.de/, Teles for its ISDN cards. * Digi has ISDN drivers for its DataFire Sync 570i. I'm sure other drivers exist. Before buying ISDN hardware, check if they have a driver for Solaris first. _________________________________________________________________ (6.44) Is there a substitute available for PRNG /dev/random for Solaris x86? Yes. /dev/random and /dev/random are pseudo-random number generators (PRNG). /dev/random will wait if the entropy pool of random bits is empty until more bits are available. /dev/urandom will not wait and may repeat bits. PRNGs are used to implement encryption software, such as GPG, OpenSSL, and OpenSSH. The /dev/*random pseudo-devices are available with Solaris 9, or, for Solaris 8, with patch 112439-01 for Intel Solaris. This patch is free and is part of the recommended patch cluster. Free PRNG substitutes include egd and prngd. Enthropy Gathering Daemon (egd), a /dev/random replacement, outputs randomness to a socket at ~/.gnupg/entropy. Pseudo Random Number Generator Daemon (prngd), a /dev/urandom replacement, outputs randomness to a socket at /var/run/egd-pool. Source and binary packages for these are available at http://www.sunfreeware.com/ _________________________________________________________________ (6.45) What are some good, easy-to-use printing solutions for Solaris? A writeup by Carl Ehorn, below, provides a good summary. It originally November 2001 appeared at http://groups.yahoo.com/group/solarisonintel/message/26467 I don't know if anyone has the same problems I did, but I recently went looking for a good printing solution that didn't require that I roll my own using Ghostscript and a bunch of scripts. I've done that before, and it gets old fairly quickly. I have a HP Deskjet 1220C, which is a color wide-carriage printer with fairly high resolution capabilities. It can print at 600x600 DPI color in normal modes, and can support up to 2400x2400 DPI color with HP software. However, that software only works on Win machines, and I don't really need that high a resolution in Solaris, as I do my graphics processing on Win machines anyway. My printer is hanging on an ethernet print-server box, which allows it to be shared by any machine on the network. This works very well, and has always worked in text modes from Solaris. But I was looking for a Postscript solution, so that I could print PDF files, Postscript files, and take advantage of some of the advanced formatting capabilities that Postscript provides. It's also nice to be able to print from a browser. So I took a look at what's available on the web. Of course, there is Ghostscript, Gimp-print, and other similar packages, but they require a fair amount of work to make a seamless print solution (at least on Solaris). So I also looked at Vividata's P-Shop, CUPS, and ESP Print Pro. These last three are fairly low-cost solutions for a single server, and I felt that the prices they charge would be acceptable to me, considering the time and effort they would save. Vividata I tried the Vividata package, and while it works fine, it did not support any of the higher resolution modes the printer was capable of. I should point out that Vividata is the only package I found that had Color profile management available as an option. I didn't try this, but it would be important if you were doing pre-press graphics work. Vividata had a generic driver for my printer, but had not updated it in some years, and does not seem to be interested in providing further development for the more recent printers that have been made. They seem to feel that if a generic PCL driver works, that's good enough. Vividata provides Postscript Level 2 support. CUPS I then tried the CUPS package, which is free on the web. There is a lot of support for this system from the internet community, including driver generators from the Gimp project. The Gimp drivers have been reported to provide very high quality output compared to the standard drivers, but require that you build and install a lot of dependent packages in order to make use of these better drivers. Again, this was looking like a lot of work to get a good package working, and I wanted to avoid that. The standard CUPS package had very disappointing output, and a generic install using the recommended driver resulted in solid black pages. Using an older, lower quality driver, I was able to obtain 300 DPI 8-bit output. While this is OK, it's not good. 8-bit color results in a very noticeable dither in both color and grayscale output, and while the 300 DPI text output was fine, I found that some PDF files did not print text very well. There were artifacts, and some aliasing in the outlines of letters. Enabling debug output from the driver resulted in some very confusing data. It appeared that the PS-2-raster conversion was done at 100 DPI, then the raster to PCL was scaled up to 300 DPI. While the support staff for CUPS says that's impossible, it sure looks that way from the debug output, and would also explain the poor text quality from some applications. CUPS is supported by the newsgroups and some of the same folks who make ESP Print Pro. It supports Postscript Level 3 output. ESP Print Pro Last of all, I tried the ESP Print Pro package. This is an enhanced product based on CUPS, but has considerably more printer-specific drivers available, including one for my printer. It installs just like CUPS, and also like CUPS, is a replacement for the LP print system that comes with Solaris and other UNIX variants. While I had some misgivings about replacing the LP system, both CUPS and ESP Print Pro installed easily, and with no problems. I'm pleased to say the ESP Print Pro worked the best of all these packages for me. I was able to set the defaults to 600x600 DPI, using CMYK color modes, and got a very noticeable increase in the print quality. Text is crisp as any 600 DPI laser, and I printed a 24-bit color scan of a photograph that resulted in a very nice print. On plain paper, the colors are not true, but are perfectly acceptable for a draft print. Note that Windows also is unable to print accurate colors on plain paper. This is not a fault of the software, but a limit in the printer technology. Printing to coated photo paper would probably provide a much more accurate print, but I did not bother to test the ESP package in this mode, as I do photo work on Windows. HP-supplied drivers work very well in Windows, and has full support for the 2400 DPI mode. With ESP Print Pro at 600 DPI, and using the CMKY color model, the supplied Postscript test page printed well, and all signs of dithering were gone, in both color and grayscale areas of the page. Note that CUPS uses the same test page, so these can be compared directly to see the differences between the packages. I found that the native Imagetool program supplied with Solaris crashed when trying to print my 24-bit TIFF test image, but when I loaded the image into StarOffice's drawing program, it printed perfectly, scaled exactly as it should have been. StarOffice sees the new printing system with no problems, and will print to the default printer without any required setup. While I have not done much testing with StarOffice, I'd be surprised if it had trouble, since the TIFF image printed correctly. As the TIFF image was a 70MB file, this certainly is one of the more stressful ways to test, and I encountered no problems at all. Both CUPS and ESP Print Pro provide printer and class management using graphic interfaces. CUPS uses Netscape, or any GUI browser, and all administration tasks can be done from the browser, except for editing the daemon config files. ESP uses a supplied program that presents a GUI interface in a compact, simple to understand way, and is also easy to use. Like CUPS (which it is based on), it does require manual editing of the daemon config files. Any text editor will work fine for either package. Both CUPS and ESP Print Pro provide replacements for 'lpstat' and associated programs, which would very much like the old ones, but tie into the new driver system. Vividata's P-Shop uses the standard lp system, and does not replace the existing native programs. Vividata is the only package that I found that supports printing through SCSI interfaces, so if you have a SCSI printer, you should certainly look at their product first. They also support SCSI scanners, which neither CUPS or ESP Print Pro provide. Vividata, CUPS, and ESP Print Pro all provide "try & buy" downloads from the web, so you can check out any package you are interested in for a trial period at no cost. Vividata allowed me to download and install their package twice, which was nice of them. They also provide students will the package for free, but don't provide support on the free version. CUPS is also free for download, and support has been handed off to the community through a number of newsgroups. ESP provides support for a fee, which can get expensive in a corporate environment, but is probably in line with any other commercial package that provides similar features. Each of these packages has it's strong points, but for me the ESP package seems to be the best match with my needs. Your mileage may vary, based on your needs, the interface your printer uses, and the drivers available for your specific printer. I hope this information will save you time and trouble, and if you have not already installed some kind of printing solution, will encourage you to take advantage of these products. There seems to be something for every budget, and the free packages available, while not perfect, will at least get your printer functioning under Solaris. _________________________________________________________________ (6.46) What is the Solaris 9 Data Encryption Supplement? It contains kernel modules to support more flavoers of encryption for IPsec and Kerberos. Currently, this is AES and Blowfish for IPSec and GSS-API for Kerberos. A writeup by Carl Ehorn, below, provides a good summary. This is available for both SPARC and Intel. It can be exported anywhere except Burma, Cuba, Iran, Iraq, Libya, North Korea, Sudan, and Syria, plus all the parties listed on the "Denied Parties List." Copyright © 1997 - 2003 Dan Anderson. All rights reserved. http://sun.drydog.com/faq/ _________________________________________________________________ (7.0) TROUBLESHOOTING (7.1) What can I do if Solaris won't boot? You need to boot from your install CD. Insert the Solaris Software CD in your CDROM drive. If your CDROM drive/bios isn't bootable, first insert the "Device Configuration Assistant" (DCA) diskette. At the "Boot Solaris" menu, choose "CD." At the "Type of Installation: Interactive or Jumpstart" menu, type "b -s" Or, after the video configuration, network, time and date you'll notice one of the menu's has a button: [Exit] Select Exit and, when it asks you again "do you want to exit?," just say yes. Once you're at the UNIX root prompt #, you can mount the boot drive with "mount /dev/dsk/c0t0d0s0 /mnt"" and view anything wrong with the boot drive (omit the "t0" for ATAPI). [Modified from Bob Palowoda's Solaris 2.4 x86 FAQ] _________________________________________________________________ (7.2) How do I restore the Solaris boot block without reinstalling? This may happen when installing a boot manager that comes with another operating system (such as LILO from Linux) or an after-market multi-OS boot manager. These sometimes trample's active partition, which in our case is Solaris. Also, moving the Solaris partition with a partition manager program such as Partition Magic requires reinstalling the Solaris boot block. Before taking these steps, first verify the Solaris partition is active. If it isn't, just make the Solaris partition active and reboot. Otherwise follow the steps below. previous question, 7.1. is /dev/rdsk/c?t?d?p? where ? is the controller #, target ID, and disk #, and partition #. Omit "t?" for ATAPI E.g., /dev/rdsk/c0d0p0 This is VERY important; if it's wrong, you you may hose another partition: prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0p0 (omit "t0" for ATAPI, always use p0, which means the "entire drive"). The prtvtoc prints out the map for the Solaris partition on the hard drive, if found. The partitions shown on the output are actually "slices" within the Solaris partition. /sbin/fdisk -b /usr/lib/fs/ufs/mboot (raw disk dev) E.g., for SCSI it might be: /sbin/fdisk -b /usr/lib/fs/ufs/mboot /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0p0 (omit "t0" for ATAPI) The Solaris Multiple Device Boot Menu should appear after rebooting. If not, you can always to an upgrade (re-)install. Note: This procedure does NOT make your Solaris partition active again (sometimes needed after installing another operating system, such as Windows, on the same disk), it just writes to your bootblock IN your Solaris partition. To learn more about the Solaris boot process, read the boot(1M) man page. _________________________________________________________________ (7.3) What can I do during the Solaris/x86 booting sequence? Step #1: Boot loader If you have multiple partitions, the boot loader in the Solaris partition will come up and ask you which partition you want to boot. This partition must be the active partition, or at least be marked active by a third-party boot manager before this boot loader receives control (not all boot managers have this feature). If you don't answer in so many seconds, it boots Solaris. This boot manager is pretty basic. It has no customization. You can't change the default boot partition to one other than Solaris, you can't change the timeout value, and you can't change the partition descriptions. But it gets the job done. Step #2: Device Configuration Assistant (DCA) This will ask you to press ESC if you want to change stuff. This is to make up for the fact that x86 machines don't have a nice OpenBOOT chip to sort out REAL "Plug and Play". Basically, in Solaris x86, the Device Assistant seems to set up certain things in /boot/solaris. This is so the "real" OS has some common format to examine for devices, instead of having lots of nasty x86 hardware specific stuff. That way, Sun can keep the main OS somewhat hardware independent, and keep it very close to the Sparc version. The "Assistant" can actually been of assistance. If you select "partial scan", then "Device tasks", and then "View/Edit Devices", it will tell you what Solaris THINKS your devices are, and where they are at. Quite useful, when Solaris gets completely lost, and you're wondering if it's your fault, or what. Otherwise, it can give you a warm fuzzy feeling, if you select "Full Scan", and you see all your devices properly recognized. Step #3: OS Boot Well, actually, the "Boot Assistant". The interface is similar, but not identical, to SPARC Solaris' OpenBoot 'boot' command. The main differences I notice are: * It's "b -r", not "boot -r", if you want to force reconfiguration. Why would you want to do that? Well sometimes, if your devices have changed a LITTLE, you might want to do this. You can also invoke it with a "touch /reconfigure" as root before rebooting. * You don't have nice device aliases like you do with Sparc hardware. That being said, if you do nothing, it should autoboot into the actual OS in a few seconds. Or you can type something quickly within 5 seconds, and force a "reconfiguration boot", as mentioned earlier. * The "Driver Assistant" or whatever, really looks for major changes, like adding or removing a card. However, if, say, you add another disk drive, you'll probably want to just do "b -r". Note that the Device Assistant will itself trigger a "b -r", after it has autodetected hardware changes. Step #4: The Main OS: Solaris You made it (I hope)!. Hopefully, you should now see a line with "SunOS5.8" or similar in it, and a little twirly text character spinner starting. You are now really in the classic Solaris environment. From here on in, your experience is almost identical to your brethren who work with SPARC Sun equipment. To learn more about the the Solaris boot process, read the boot(1M) man page. [Thanks to Phil at http://www.bolthole.com/solaris/] _________________________________________________________________ (7.4) How do I logon as root if the password doesn't work anymore? Regaining control of a Solaris x86 system where the root password has been lost can be accomplished by the following steps. Note that any savvy user can do this with the proper CD-ROM and diskette. Therefore, of course, physical security of a system is important for machines containing sensitive data. 1. Insert installation boot diskette and installation CD-ROM for Solaris x86. 2. Boot system from the installation floppy and select the CD-ROM as the boot device. 3. Type "b -s" (instead of typing 1 or 2 from the menu) and it'll drop you straight to a root shell, #, (and you'll be in single-user mode). 4. At the root prompt, #, key in the following commands, which will create a directory called hdrive under the /tmp directory and then mount the root hard drive partition under this temporary directory. mkdir /tmp/hdrive mount /dev/dsk/c0t0d0s0 /tmp/hdrive #SCSI; for ATAPI, omit "t0" 5. To use the vi editor, the TERM variable must be defined. Key in the following commands. TERM=at386 export TERM 6. Start vi (or some other editor) and load /tmp/hdrive/etc/shadow file: vi /tmp/hdrive/etc/shadow 7. Change the first line of the shadow file that has the root entry to: root::6445:::::: 8. Write and quit the vi editor with the "!" override command: :wq! 9. Halt the system, remove the floppy installation diskette, and reboot the system: halt from the Console Login: as root with no password. Just hit enter for the password. root password and secure the system. [Thanks to Lynn R. Francis, Texas State Technical College] _________________________________________________________________ (7.5) My licensed software fails because the host ID is 0. What's wrong? Intel processor machines don't have an IDPROM, so Sun generates a serial number, hostid command or sysinfo()'s SI_HW_SERIAL, pseudo-randomly during installation. The number is stored in /kernel/misc/sysinit, whose only function, it appears, is to provide the serial number. If serialization information is tampered or sysinit fails to load, the host ID will be 0. If you reinstall Solaris, sysinit will be regenerated and your host ID will change. So be careful about reinstalling Solaris if you have licensed software that depends on your host ID. Backup your sysinit file. To preserve the same ID (and therefore licenses), copy file /kernel/misc/sysinit to the replacement system. I understand the Sun Workshop/Sun ONE compiler manual says this is allowed twice per calendar year (please verify this yourself). For more information, see the Sun NVRAM/hostid FAQ, available at http://www.squirrel.com/squirrel/sun-nvram-hostid.faq.html and elsewhere. This also has tools to fake hostids. _________________________________________________________________ (7.6) How can I fix Netscape Communicator to render fonts correctly on S/x86? This problem occurs with Solaris 2.6 and Netscape Communicator 4.0x, and has since been fixed. Apply patch 106248, which I'm told fixes this problem. A workaround is to add the following two lines to your ~/.xinitrc file: xset +fp /usr/openwin/lib/X11/fonts/75dpi/ xset fp rehash Another workaround, if you don't have these fonts, is to go into Netscape Preferences and change the font faces. [Thank's to Alan Orndorff, Jeffrey Cook, and John Riddoch] _________________________________________________________________ (7.7) Why doesn't Netscape run as root? This is a bug in Netscape. Due to a Netscape 4.x bug (it thrashes the $HOME environment variable) the X11 library cannot find root's ..Xauthority file in the root dir unless your current directory is /. Large, complex programs (especially those taking input from & to the Internet) should not be run as root. Experienced users and Administrators run as root only for essential sysadmin tasks. If you must run as root, try one of these tricks: * Make sure you run Netscape with a current directory of / (so that the relative pathname '.Xauthority' works) * Or start Netscape with HOME="/." (so that Netscape doesn't thrash the $HOME variable) * Or start Netscape with an environment variable XAUTHORITY="/.Xauthority" [Thanks to Juergen Keil via John Groenveld] _________________________________________________________________ (7.8) I moved my PCI host adapter to another slot and the system won't boot! Don't move the adapter. It isn't a supported feature in Solaris and isn't easy to recover from. If you have any choice in the matter, move the controller back to it original slot. The PCI device number is part of the device's basic ID, including its child disks. If you change slots, you've effectively removed that controller and its disks, and added an unrelated controller and disks. You need to fix up all of the references to the old disks to point to the new disks. I've never come up with any strategy better than "boot, observe failure, fix failure, reboot" for recovering from this kind of change. For simple cases (single controller, in particular) it can be helpful to clear /dev/dsk/* and /dev/rdsk/* and run "disks", but that is perilous too. Incidentally, changing motherboards is likely to trip exactly this problem, because motherboards generally number their slots differently. To conclude, it's difficult and dangerous, and the general guidelines involves fixing: 1. /etc/vfstab or /dev or both 2. /devices to match one another 3. possibly removing lines from /etc/path_to_inst in order to make the right /devices nodes show up The ultimate goal is to get back the same controller numbers as before. [Sun FAQ 2576-02 at http://access1.Sun.COM/cgi-bin/rinfo2html?257602.faq] _________________________________________________________________ (7.9) Why is Solaris always booting into the Device Configuration Assistant (DCA)? This is usually caused by one of the following: * You installed Solaris onto a disk other than the primary boot disk. * You didn't remove your DCA boot diskette or if you didn't remove your installation CD-ROM if it's in a bootable CD-ROM drive. * File /boot/solaris/bootenv.rc is corrupt or truncated, usually after a hard reboot or reset. This file is setup and used by DCA. It should contain several lines. To change or set your default boot device, See Sun FAQ 2271-02 at http://access1.Sun.COM/cgi-bin/rinfo2html?227102.faq for instructions. To summarize: * From the "Boot Solaris" screen, press F4 (Boot Tasks). * On the "Boot Tasks" screen, press Enter to place an "X" in front of "View/Edit Autoboot Settings." * In the "View/Edit Autoboot Settings" screen, note that the Default Boot Device will not be set to any valid device. Place an "X" in front of Set Default Boot Device and press F2 (Continue). * On the Set Default Boot Device screen, place an X in front of the correct disk and press F2 (Continue). * Arrow up to the Accept Settings and press Enter to mark with an "X". Press F2 (Continue) to return to the Boot Tasks screen. * Press F3 (Back). It will load appropriate drivers after which you will be at the Boot Solaris screen. Press F2 (Continue) to continue booting. _________________________________________________________________ (7.10) What is the equivalent of STOP-A for Solaris Intel? [ref] >I don't think so, because Stop-A allow you to go into open boot prom[/ref] of >the SUN and on a x86 it's a different thing (BIOS) Unlike Solaris on Sparc (where STOP-A gets you the OpenBoot prompt), there is no PROM firmware to drop into on x86. You can boot your system under kadb and then use a similar keystroke to drop into kadb and obtain debugging information. To boot under kadb, type eeprom boot-file=kadb and then: * Prior to Solaris 8, type CTRL-ALT-d to jump into kadb * On Solaris 8 or later, type F1-a to jump into kadb * At the Solaris Intel Boot Assistant prompt type "b kadb" You can then type, for example: $" followed by "~" and "ctrl-break" on Solaris Sparc, but this, too, is not available for Solaris Intel. With Solaris 8 SPARC (but not Intel), there's a new feature to allow keyboard sequences to generate a break (bug 4147705). The 3-character sequence is , ~ (tilde), ^b. Each character must be entered between 0.5 to 2 seconds. This is enabled with the "kbd -a alternate" command. Similarly a soft reset is , ~ (tilde), cntl-shift-R, XIR is , ~ (tilde), cntl-shift-X, and Power Cycle is , ~ (tilde), cntl-shift-P, I believe these commands are also available only on SPARC. [Thanks to Ramit Luthra and Mike Shapiro] _________________________________________________________________ (7.11) How can I reboot Solaris x86 without it asking me to to "press a key" before rebooting? This works for me, become root and type: "shutdown -i6 -g0 -y". Or: "init 6 This is most useful when the system is remote with no console keyboard access. [Thanks to Charles J. Fisher] _________________________________________________________________ (7.12) Help! I'm stuck in the "Boot Assistant" and can't boot. What do I do? If you get a message similar to: Run Error: File not found. could not run s You probably typed "reboot -- -s" or "reboot -- -r" or similar. This works for Solaris SPARC, but not for Solaris on Intel--it's disastrous. It changes your "boot-file" eeprom variable to "-s", which errors out and puts you in an endless loop in B oot Assistant. To undo this, type the following at the Boot Assistant prompt: "b kernel/unix" This boots with file /platform/i86/kernel/unix. If this doesn't help, your filesystem may be hosed. In that case, you have to reinstall. But make sure this is the case first. _________________________________________________________________ (7.13) Help! I get error 2 or error 8 while applying patches. What do I do? Don't do anything. Error 2 means you already have the same or newer code. Error 8 means you can't patch some optional packages that haven't been installed, even if you did "everything plus OEM" during the original installation. Other errors, usually from lack of disk space, are explained in the patchadd(1M) man page. [Thanks to Paul Karagianis] _________________________________________________________________ (7.14) How do I prevent kdmconfig from running on boot up when I know my keyboard, display, and mouse configuration has not changed? Mike of Sun has this response (9/2002): I recognized this as a bug that was fixed a while back, for one instance with older ATI cards. I mentioned it to the video developer that fixed the ATI bug and he mentioned that there is a workaround if you see this: This problem occurs with certain hardware (keyboards, mice, video devices). During booting, a checksum is calculated based on some info obtained for each device. The checksum is compared to a checksum recorded in the OWconfig file. If the checksums don't match, kdmconfig thinks the device may have changed, and asks the user to check it. On systems that exhibit this problem, the device info that is checksummed seems to change from boot to boot even though no hardware has changed. I've seen this happen with some old ATI video cards and some keyboards. The easy workaround for the problem is to run kdmconfig and test and accept the desired configuration by clicking on the "Yes" button of the test display. Then edit the last line of the OWconfig file in /etc/openwin/server/etc. Change the "1" to "2", so that is says: TestedByUser="2"; This will cause kdmconfig to ignore checksum differences. [Thanks to Mike Riley] _________________________________________________________________ (7.15) I get this error message: "can't get local host's domain name" or "The local host's domain name hasn't been set." What do I do? This is a NIS message. The easiest way to fix it is to type the following as root: domainname abc.com; domainname >/etc/defaultdomain (replace abc.com with your NIS domain name, which is usually the same as the DNS domain name). Copyright © 1997 - 2003 Dan Anderson. All rights reserved. http://sun.drydog.com/faq/ _________________________________________________________________ (8.0) X Windows (8.1) How do I find a Solaris video driver for my graphics card? First look in the HCL for your release of Solaris to see if your graphics card is supported. If it's not listed, look for a driver from these sources: * http://developers.Sun.COM/ may have newer drivers for your release * Some video drivers are bundled (hidden) with Recommended Update Patches. For example, NVideo video driver, which supports everything from TNT's to GeF4's, is in the Solaris 8 Recommended Updates. * Consider 3rd party drivers from XiGraphics, http://www.xig.com/, especially recommended if you have a laptop. * As an alternative, you can also use the XFree86 Video Drivers Porting Kit, which is actually easier to use than you may think. See the question below on the video drivers and porting kit. * Finally, if all else fails, see the question below on installing XFree86 on Solaris. Personally, it's a lot easier to use a card supported by Xsun than to install XFree86. During installation, if you have a unsupported video card, be sure to bypass kdmconfig with the F4 key. Also, install with the "1 of 2" CD instead of the Webstart CD. [Thanks to Paul Karagianis for NVida info] _________________________________________________________________ (8.2)How can I use a XFree86 video driver with XSun? You can download the Solaris XFree86 Video Drivers and Porting Kit from Sun at http://developers.Sun.COM/solaris/developer/support/driver/tools/ video/video-index.html The porting kit allows you to use XFree86 video drivers for Sun's standard XSun server for Solaris x86. The porting kit is not supported by Sun. How easy is it to use the porting kit? I haven't had the need to use it, but here's a quote from Johanna Doran's email to me: I just want to offer another EASIER alternative solution for getting XFree86 to work with Solaris: the Sun Video Drivers and Porting Kit. I was a complete newbie when I went and installed Solaris on my Intel box, only to find my monitor was not supported. I made SEVERAL unsuccessful attempts to install the XFree86 drivers. Finally I ran into someone who worked at Sun who said to try the porting kit. Got it on the FIRST try. You download, un-zip the files, install two patches and two packages, go to kdmconfig and voila! all the XFree drivers appear. If none of the drivers are for your card, select the VESA option and it works for MOST common monitors. If I had seen this Porting Kit before and knew how EASY it was to install, I wouldn't have gone through having to re-install Solaris. I mean EASY. _________________________________________________________________ (8.3) How do I install XFree86 on Solaris? Why would you want to? Usually because the standard XSun server doesn't support your graphics board or doesn't support the color depth or resolution you wish to have or you may want OpenGL support (available only with the Sparc version of XSun). If board support is the only problem, please see the question above on video drivers. Here's some notes for installing XFree86 on Solaris x86. http://www.xfree86.org/3.3.6/SOLX86.html As a final hint, get and read the HOWTOs and books that were written for XFree86 on Linux. Starting with Solaris 2.6, Sun changed the way X client communicates with X server when both the client and X server are on the local machine (DISPLAY variable is set to ":0"). In short, instead of using /tmp/.X11-unix, the client connects to the X server using /tmp/.X11-pipe. Since XFree86 doesn't support /tmp/.X11-pipe, CDE will not work out-of-the-box on the local display under the XFree86 server. If you added virtual terminals (mentioned elsewhere in this FAQ and only possible with Solaris 2.4 to 7), you must leave one VT open (usually VT07); otherwise XFree86 will not run. To install and configure XFree86: * Download binaries for Solaris (Intel platform) from ftp://ftp.xfree86.org/pub/XFree86/ * Check your platform and OS: sh Xinstall.sh -check * Install XFree86 with: sh Xinstall.sh * After the installation is complete, create your own XF86Config file: XFree86 -configure * Remove or rename your old X server: cd /usr/openwin/bin; mv X X.old * Link to your new X server: ln -s /usr/X11R6/bin/X /usr/openwin/bin/X * Copy the default dt configuration: mkdir -p /etc/dt/config; cp /usr/dt/config/Xservers /etc/dt/config * Edit /etc/dt/config/Xservers to cause dtlogin to start XFree86 instead of Xsun next time it loads. CDE will still run with XFree86: # :0 Local local_uid@console root /usr/openwin/bin/Xsun :0 -nobanner unix:0 Local local_uid@console root /usr/X11R6/bin/X :0 -depth 16 For 24-bit displays, "-depth 16" should be changed to "-depth 24". For 8-bit displays, omit "-depth 16". Use "unix:0" to cause dtlogin to set the DISPLAY variable to local sessions instead of ":0.0" and CDE will be able to connect to the local X server. For older XFree 3.x, use "-bpp" instead of "-depth" (which is used for 4.x). * Edit /XF86Config.new and change /dev/mouse to /dev/kdmouse and "auto" to "PS/2" (if appropriate): under section "Pointer" (or "InputDevice"): Section "InputDevice" # Older versions of XFree86 use "Pointer" Identifier "Mouse1" Driver "mouse" Option "Protocol" "PS/2" # "auto" for PNP mice Option "Device" "/dev/kdmouse" # or "/dev/mouse" EndSection For USB mice, use something similar to the following: Section "InputDevice" Identifier "Mouse1" Driver "mouse" Option "Protocol" "VUID" # For USB mice Option "Device" "/dev/mouse" EndSection * To test the server , run XFree86 -xf86config XF86Config.new * If it works: cd /etc/X11; mv XF86Config XF86Config.old; cp XF86Config.new XF86Config * After X server configuration is done, /usr/sbin/reboot. This verifies startup works OK. Optional step. Once the above is working, you may add fonts from the /usr/openwin/lib/X11/fonts/ directory to the default font path for XFree86 server. Edit /etc/XF86Config file and add this to section "Files": FontPath "/usr/openwin/lib/X11/fonts/F3bitmaps/" FontPath "/usr/openwin/lib/X11/fonts/Type1/" FontPath "/usr/openwin/lib/X11/fonts/Speedo/" FontPath "/usr/openwin/lib/X11/fonts/misc/" FontPath "/usr/openwin/lib/X11/fonts/75dpi/" FontPath "/usr/openwin/lib/X11/fonts/100dpi/" Aliases for CDE fonts are in the F3bitmaps directory, so you'll need at least this line. [Warning: I have a report that adding the Openwin fonts to the XFree86 server, as recommended here, could cause dtlogin to fail.] For those that use S3 Virge cards, it seems that SVGA server (the default server for Virge cards) has problems with some chipsets. Try using an old S3V server instead. Also, the problem with returning from graphics to text mode seems to be present on all three servers I tried (Xsun, SVGA and S3V). [Thanks to Aleksandar Milivojevic, Jimmy Chang, Philip Brown, and Joerg Niethammer] _________________________________________________________________ (8.4) How do I configure 64K colors for CDE? Solaris' kdmconfig offers only a choice of 256 or 16M colors for your graphics board. To configure Xsun to use 16-bit color, configure using kdmconfig for the desired resolution in 256 color mode. Note the board line from file /etc/openwin/server/etc/OWconfig. Look in the referenced file in directory /usr/openwin/share/etc/devdata/SUNWaccel/boards to see if there is support for 16-bit color mode for your card. If your board is listed, edit file /etc/openwin/server/etc/OWconfig and change defdepth="8" to defdepth="16" in it. Also, values for MaxPClk for some cards are way too low in 16-bit and 24-bit modes in file /usr/openwin/share/etc/devdata/SUNWaccel/boards. But if you want to change this, you are doing it on your own risk. Some applications hang on 16-bit colors. The CDE logo that is displayed after one logs in is a bit-mapped grayscale image(?!), but everything else should work just fine. [Thanks to Aleksandar Milivojevic, by way of John Groenveld] _________________________________________________________________ (8.5) How do I Add GNOME, KDE or other non-CDE Window Mangers to the dtlogin screen? The easiest way is to add substitute KDE for CDE is to add an "exec /path/to/kde" statement in your $HOME/.dtprofile file. To add a KDE selection to the dtlogin screen (in addition to the usual command-line, OpenWindows, or CDE choices), follow one or both of these links: * http://www.tiem.utk.edu/~peek/solaris/ written by Michael Peek * http://twirl.mcc.ac.uk/~zzassgl/wm.html written by Geoff Lane The instructions are for fvwm, but apply to any window manager, such as KDE, AfterStep, WindowMaker, or Enlightenment. Be aware that these new WMs usually take a bigger memory footprint. _________________________________________________________________ (8.6) Where can I get GNOME or KDE packages for Solaris/x86? GNOME (and KDE) are available with the Companion CD for the 10/00 update of Solaris 8. It's also available on the web for download. For information about GNOME on Solaris or for a free download, see http://www.sun.com/gnome/ Another source for (separately built) packages for GNOME and GNOME extras is at http://myweb.clark.net/pub/bent/Solaris8-X86/GNOME/ For information on GNOME, see http://www.gnome.org/ For general KDE information, see http://www.kde.org/ Binaries are at ftp://ftp.kde.org/pub/kde/stable/latest/distribution/pkg/Solaris/ 8.0/x86 and at mirrors elsewhere (see http://www.kde.org/mirrors.html). When installing KDE, make sure to install the QT library first, which is required by KDE. Which is better? "Religious" wars could be fought over this question. KDE has a more familiar M$ windows-like interface, and I used to use it. I use GNOME now since it's most easily available on both Solaris and Linux. KDE is more mature than GNOME and more tightly integrated, but some say GNOME is catching up. GNOME and Mozilla both use the GTK library. The QT library, required by KDE, used to have stricter licensing restrictions, but now it's licensed under GPL (not LGPL). KDE is endorsed and supported by IBM, Caldera, and SuSE. GNOME is endorsed and supported by Sun (and RedHat and HP). I recommend installing and trying out both GNOME and KDE for a test drive. You can have both installed at the same time and select which one to use with dtlogin. You can also run KDE apps under GNOME and vice versa. Sun picked GNOME over KDE because of Qt licensing issues, CORBRA in GNOME, and because GNOME uses C and KDE uses C++ (the latter causes name mangling problems which prevents using different C++ compilers). _________________________________________________________________ (8.7) Are TrueType fonts supported in Solaris? Yes, Xsun supports them. Use the Font Administrator GUI, /usr/dt/bin/sdtfontadm, to add them to the server's list of fonts. [Thanks to Tran Tran] _________________________________________________________________ (8.8) How do I make XFree86 version 3.x- or XiG Xaccel 5.0.3- work with Solaris 8? You can't. X servers for previous versions of Solaris rely on /dev/vt* virtual terminals, which have been of end-of-life-ed in Solaris 8 (see an earlier question). You'll get an error message similar to: xf86OpenConsole: Cannot determine current VT. You must upgrade to XFree86 version 4.x or better which is currently (7/2000) available only in source. XiG released 5.0.4 as a binary patch for its commercial X server. See http://www.xfree86.org/ and http://www.xig.com/ [Thanks to John Groenveld] _________________________________________________________________ (8.9) How do I disable CDE auto-start upon booting multi-user? Boot single-user and run dtconfig(1). That is, at the booting Solaris prompt, type "b -s" After entering your root password, mount /usr and run "/usr/dt/bin/dtconfig -d" [Thanks to John Groenveld] _________________________________________________________________ (8.10) How do I su(1) to another user and run an X application? You need to set your $DISPLAY and allow others to use your console. If you don't, you get a message like "Can't open display". By default, only the user who logged in on console can connect to the display. To allow another user to connect there are two ways - one easy and one secure (unfortunately, you can't have both): Easy: As user logged in on console run "xhost +LOCAL:" (This gives permission to connect to the display to anyone logged in on the machine - this includes being able to open windows, read your keystrokes, send keystrokes, etc. Obviously not a good idea if you have other users on the system you don't trust completely.) As any other user logged in on the box, run "setenv DISPLAY :0" or "DISPLAY=:0; export DISPLAY", depending on your shell type. This all assumes you're connecting from the same host, for a remote host, change to "xhost +other-hostname" and "setenv DISPLAY PutYourHostnameHere:0" Safe: As user logged in on console run "xauth list" Look for the line for your hostname followed by ":0" and copy it. As the user you want to grant access to run "xauth" and at the xauth> prompt type "add " and paste the line you copied. Now "setenv DISPLAY hostname:0", making sure you match the way it was listed in the line you copied and pasted. Easier variation of safe method for special cases: If the other user you want to access your screen is root, and your home directory is either local or on an NFS filesystem exported with root permissions, just have root do this: setenv XAUTHORITY /home/myuserid/.Xauthority ; setenv DISPLAY :0 (replace "/home/myuserid" with your actual home directory). [Thanks to Alan Coopersmith] _________________________________________________________________ (8.11) Does Solaris Intel support multiple heads? No. A commercial X server from Xi graphics, http://www.xig.com/ supports multiple heads. Dual-headed monitors will be built-in Solaris 8's Xsun (Xinerama, X11R6.4), but that works on Sparc only, not Intel. XFree86 does not currently support multiple heads, though the feature is on the wish list for XFree86-4. [Thanks to John Groenveld, Alan Coopersmith] _________________________________________________________________ (8.12) How do I get my 2-button mouse to emulate 3 buttons? In Solaris 8, "kdmconfig" will autodetect a two-button PS/2 mouse, so you may never look in the "change pointing device" section. You need to go in there, and change it from "PS/2 Mouse (2 Button)" to "PS/2 Mouse (2 Button+100ms 3 Button Emulation)" [Thanks to Philip Brown] _________________________________________________________________ (8.13) How do I make the NumLock key go on automatically when I log in? Add xset led 2 to your CDE startup file, $HOME/.dtprofile. To turn it off, use xset -led 2 Similarly, for CapsLock, use xset led 4 To make settings apply to all users, add to file /etc/dt/config/.dtprofile _________________________________________________________________ (8.14)How do I get admintool(1M) and some other Solaris GUI's to run with XFree86? Some applications are configured to use Sun's proprietary F3 fonts. The work-around is to run Sun font server, xfs(1), and to prefix XFree86's FontPath with it. Copyright © 1997 - 2003 Dan Anderson. All rights reserved. http://sun.drydog.com/faq/ _________________________________________________________________ (9.0) INTEROPERABILITY WITH OTHER OPERATING SYSTEMS (9.1) Can I install Solaris x86 on a system that already has MS Windows 9x/ME/NT/2K/XP (among other systems)? When you run the 2.6 install program, it will ask you which partition you wish to use. On disk1, all you need to do is to create another partition on your existing disk. You can use Solaris boot manager to boot Solaris x86, and MS Windows 9x/ME/NT/2K/XP (among other systems). To shrink an existing MS-DOS/MS Windows partition, if you need to make room, use something like Partition Magic. Problems have been reported inter-working with OS/2, however. Reportedly, the order in which you install things is very important. Solaris doesn't "share" computers and partitions really well. If you have problems, you may need to install Solaris first, on a partition towards the end, reinstall the boot manager and add the partition. Other options for booting is to use System Commander (see question below), IBM's Boot Manager (bundled with Partition Magic or OS/2), FreeBSD's OS-BS (see question below), System Selector, or OS-BootSelect (open source), instead of the Solaris' Boot Manager. Mariusz Zynel has a detailed information on booting Solaris with other operating systems at http://math.uwb.edu.pl/~mariusz/multiboot/ [Thanks to Barry Katz, Brandon Hume, Joseph A. Faracchio, Joelle Nebbe, Eugeny Kuzakov, and Sean M. Kelley] _________________________________________________________________ (9.2) How can I use MS Windows' NT/2K Loader to boot Solaris/x86? The general idea is that you copy the first sector of your native root Solaris/x86 partition into a file in the DOS/MS Windows NT/2K partition. Assuming you name that file something like c:\bootsect.sun (inspired by c:\bootsect.dos) you can edit file c:\boot.ini (after saving boot.ini to boot.old): to come up with something like this: [boot loader] timeout=30 default=multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(1)\WINNT [operating systems] multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(1)\WINNT="Windows NT" multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(1)partition(1)C:\BOOTSECT.SUN="Solaris/x86" C:\="DOS" The "multi(0)" means that it's an ATAPI drive and so for the ATAPI drives, the "disk(0)" is ignored. The "rdisk(1)partition(1)" means Solaris is on the first partition of the second drive on the first IDE channel. This procedure assumes that DOS and NT have been installed onto the first ATAPI disk and Solaris/x86 or whatever have been onto the second disk (use scsi(0) and place the SCSI ID in disk(x) for SCSI drives). Note that in order to use the Windows NT boot loader, the NT partition must be the active boot partition. Solaris/x86 must also be the active boot partition, so must reside on another disk (This may be another reason to use a commercial product, System Commander--see question below). In Solaris, mount a DOS-formatted floppy (if you've converted C: to NTFS, which isn't readable from Solaris/x86) or a HD FAT partition (see question below), under, say, /mnt. Type: dd if=/dev/rdsk/c0d0p0 of=/mnt/bootsect.sun bs=512 count=1 # (Note: The above is for ATAPI; use /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0p0 for SCSI.) If the Solaris partition is on a separate drive (as in this example), you need to modify file bootsect.sun to tell it the boot drive. The instructions below are for Solaris 7 or earlier The bootsect.sun code assumes the drive ID is preloaded into the x86 DL register before the bootsect.sun is executed. This is done by the BIOS, but not the NT loader. The easiest way to fix this is to modify the bootsect.sun code with a binary file editor. The first instruction is a jump over the next 4 bytes, the ASCII version ID ("P2.0" in this case). Use a binary editor to overwrite this with a "MOV DL,0x81" instruction and some NOPs. I.e., I changed the first six bytes in my bootsect.sun from "eb 04 50 32 2e 30" to "b2 81 90 90 90 90" (in hex) and saved it in file bootsect.sun. Another person's bootsector began with eb 79 . . . and he changed the first 4 bytes to b2 81 eb 77 to get it to work. Some useful drive IDs are: 0x00 for the floppy drive, 0x80 for the 1st hard drive, and 0x81 for the 2nd hard drive. Reboot into NT. Copy the bootsect.sun file from the floppy to C:\, if you haven't done so yet. Modify the DOS/NT attributes (permissions) on boot.ini with: attrib -s -r c:\boot.ini Edit to add the appropriate entries from the example boot.ini above, and restore the system and read-only file attributes: attrib +s +r c:\boot.ini An alternative to the Solaris "dd" command above is to use the "postcard-ware" program BootPart 2.2 from http://www.winimage.com/bootpart.htm. E.g., the following displays the partitions, then creates a boot sector file bootsect.sun and adds "Solaris" to the NT loader menu. Edit bootsect.sun as above. C:> bootpart.exe C:> bootpart.exe 1 bootsect.sun Solaris [Thanks to Krejcarek Brian Grant, Louis Lam, Matt Gillen, and Indego Thorn] _________________________________________________________________ (9.3) How can I use the Solaris boot manager to boot Windows NT? 1. Create 3 PRIMARY partitions on the disk in the following order 1. DOS FAT 2. DOS FAT (to become NTFS) 3. empty (to become Solaris) 2. install DOS (or MS Windows 9x/ME/NT/2K/XP) on Partition 1 3. Then install NT on partition 2, converting to NTFS while installing 4. Finally, install Solaris 2.6 on partition 3 using Solaris interactive. Solaris boot manager will be the master boot controller, but then choose partition 1 to boot NT (yes that is right, not 2). Then the NT boot manager will come to life, allowing you to select either DOS (partition 1) or NT (partition 2). Note that Solaris must be the active partition when its booting. [Thanks to Claude Dumas] _________________________________________________________________ (9.4) How can I use System Commander to boot Solaris/x86 and other systems? To use System Commander to dual boot both Win NT and Solaris, make these two configuration changes to System Commander: all other partitions from NT and Solaris (so they can't see each other's partitions). 1. From main System Commander menu pick ALT-S. 2. select "Global Settings" but *DO NOT* press enter. 3. press "ALT-F9" which brings up an internal configuration menu. 4. Change the "Clear Items" menu choice from "MEMORY" to "NO" or "NONE". 5. press ESC to return to main menu. _________________________________________________________________ (9.5) Can I install Linux and Solaris on the same drive? Yes, with certain precautions. Be especially careful with RedHat Linux 6.1 (see below) Unfortunately, both Solaris/x86 and Linux swap partitions use the same ID, 0x82. So if you install Solaris on a drive with a Linux swap partition already on it, it will install on the Linux swap partition. You have two choices: swap partition if you have enough memory). latter, the install program will probably ask if you want to format what it thinks is your Linux swap partition (and is actually your Solaris partition) as a swap file. Be sure to not do this! Red Hat Linux 6.1 (October 1999) Red Hat Linux 6.1's installer automatically uses all Linux swap partitions on all drives. Since Solaris/x86 uses the same ID, the installer overwrites it too! This is not a problem with older versions of RedHat Linux (as long as Linux and Solaris were on separate drives). Personally I don't use the installer to upgrade (I just install individual RPMs). Here's the summary from Red Hat Gotchas, http://www.redhat.com/support/docs/gotchas/6.1/gotchas-6.1-4.html#ss4. 12 Problem: Installation of Red Hat Linux 6.1 can overwrite Solaris. If you have Solaris Intel on your machine, you will have problems with Red Hat Linux 6.1 Fix: Solaris partitions use the same type as Linux swap partitions. The installer will use all found swap partitions. Currently, there are several possible work-arounds to this problem. If Solaris is on a separate drive from the drive you wish to install Red Hat Linux 6.1 on, please disconnect this drive. The other workaround is to change the "Partition type" of the Solaris partition. Before you install Red Hat Linux to another type, install Red Hat Linux, and then change the type back to another type. This can be accomplished by going using expert mode and choosing fdisk over disk druid. # fdisk /dev/hda Command (m for help): p Disk /dev/hda: 255 heads, 63 sectors, 784 cylinders Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 bytes Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System /dev/hda1 * 1 345 2771181 83 Linux /dev/hda2 346 784 3526267+ 5 Extended /dev/hda5 346 751 3261163+ 83 Linux /dev/hda6 752 784 265041 82 Linux swap Command (m for help): t Partition number (1-6): 6 Hex code (type L to list codes): 08 Command (m for help): w After the install you can change the partition type to back 0x82 so that Solaris will boot. This "gotcha" was removed from the RedHat 6.2 list, so hopefully the problem doesn't occur with newer versions of RedHat Linux. For more information, see the Linux HOWTOs and LILO User Guide. For information on installing Solaris/x86 on your second hard drive, see below. _________________________________________________________________ (9.6) How can I use GRUB to boot Solaris/x86? Here's an example for GRUB's, a GNU bootloader popular with Linux. To use, add something like this to file /boot/grub/grub.conf: title Solaris 9 rootnoverify (hd0,1) chainloader +1 makeactive boot Numbers are relative to zero for GRUB. That means "hd0, 1" is the first hard disk's second partition. "makeactive" tells GRUB to make the Solaris partition active before booting, as Solaris won't boot if it's partition isn't the active partition. For more information on this and other boot loaders, see http://multiboot.solaris-x86.org/ [Thanks to Mariusz Zynel] _________________________________________________________________ (9.7) How can I use LILO to boot Solaris/x86 on the primary slave ATAPI? Basically, the Linux LILO boot loader is used to fool Solaris into thinking the slave is the master and vice versa by remapping the BIOS drive numbers (with the map-drive and to lines) Here's an example entry in a /etc/lilo.conf file: # /etc/lilo.conf boot=/dev/hda map=/boot/map install=/boot/boot.b prompt timeout=50 other=/dev/hdb1 label=Solaris table=/dev/hdb map-drive=0x80 to=0x81 map-drive=0x81 to=0x80 (use /dev/hdc instead of /dev/hdb if your second drive is the secondary ATAPI master instead of the primary ATAPI slave drive). For more information, see the Linux HOWTOs and LILO User Guide. [Thanks to David Uhring and Loran Marjanski] _________________________________________________________________ (9.8) How can I use OS-BS or System Selector to boot Solaris/x86? Grab OS-BS [a free boot manager distributed with FreeBSD] from: ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/tools/osbs135.exe Or (newer) from: http://www.prz.tu-berlin.de/~wolf/os-bs.html Assuming you've already got Linux installed and enough free space for Solaris, go ahead and install the latter. Solaris then becomes the Active partition. Follow that installation with OS-BS and configure to "set startup id", which changes the Active partition on-the-fly. OS-BS comes in a newer, commercial version, that I use, called System Selector in the US, De'marreur in France, and Boot Manager elsewhere. See http://www.BootManager.com/ System Selector needs a small FAT or FAT32 partition to install on. You also need to either boot a version of DOS or Windows to read the install files on the CD-ROM drive. Note that this partition doesn't need to be bootable or active--it is only used to hold files used by System Selector. System Selector replaces the previous boot block in the MFT and boots directly from the drive's MFT. When System Selector's installation menu comes up, you won't see Solaris listed among the selections under the "System" tab, as you most other systems that may be on your system, such as Windows or Linux. Instead, go to the "Partitions" tab and select the partition marked "Linux Swap." This is actually the Solaris Partition (both Solaris and Linux Swap partitions share the same code, 83 hex). Select it and under the "Properties" tab make sure you check "Assign active ID to this system [partition] before booting." Update: An open-source solution, GAG, http://raster.cibermillennium.com/gageng.htm provides a graphical boot menu which works with Solaris Intel and other Intel-based operating systems. _________________________________________________________________ (9.9) How can I boot both Solaris/x86 and Win NT on the same disk? Here's one way of doing it. Solaris/x86 requires it's partition to be active and uses it's own boot manager with it hard-coded to boot to Solaris on timeouts. If you want to use NT's boot manager or default to another operating system, it usually requires installing both operating systems on separate disks or using a third-party product, such as System Commander, that makes the partition "Active" on the fly This solution, described here by Andrew Mickish, is to make a boot floppy: Although the Solaris x86 installation manual makes it sound like all you have to do is partition your disks to get multiple operating systems to work, I found that this was not the case. To get a dual boot of Solaris and NT on the same hard drive, without using the Solaris default boot manager, you have to use a floppy boot disk to help start one of the OSes. Here is how I got NT and Solaris working on the same disk. The following fdisk partitioning causes Solaris to boot from the hard drive, yet allows you to boot to NT if you insert a floppy disk with the NT boot loader: +--------------------------------------------------+ | Solaris [Active, for Solaris] | | C: PRI-DOS (FAT) [Active, for NT] | | D: EXT-DOS (FAT) | +--------------------------------------------------+ Partitioning: The Solaris partition should be created during the Solaris installation, using Solaris's FDISK. The remaining partitions should be created during installation of NT. Active partition: You must set the Solaris partition to be ACTIVE in order to make it boot to Solaris. NT does not have to be active to boot. Use a DOS boot disk with FDISK to quickly change which partition is active. Boot disk: After setting the NT partition to be active, you still need the NT boot loader on a floppy disk in order to direct the PC to the second partition. (Usually the boot loader is on the primary partition of the hard drive, but that partition is Solaris and unreadable to NT.) Your floppy directs the boot process to the right partition by using a BOOT.INI file that says where the NT kernel can be found: [boot loader] timeout=30 default=multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(2)\WINNT [operating systems] multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(2)\WINNT="Windows NT Workstation Version 4.00" multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(2)\WINNT="Windows NT Workstation Version 4.00 [VGA mode]" /basevideo /sos Note: The numbering of partitions is one-based, so the C: partition in the diagram above is in partition #2. Please send comments and suggestions to edu [Thanks to Andrew Mickish] _________________________________________________________________ (9.10) How do I mount a DOS partition from the hard drive? mount -F pcfs /dev/dsk/c0t0d0p0:1 /mnt # SCSI mount -F pcfs /dev/dsk/c0d0p0:1 /mnt # ATAPI Where c0 is the controller number. t0 is the target (SCSI ID number) (omit for ATAPI) d0 is always 0 for SCSI, the drive # for ATAPI p0 is the partition (p0 is the entire disk, or p1 - p4) /mnt is the mount point :1 is the logical drive (c - z or 1 - 24) You can use the normal UNIX commands to copy files, 'cp', etc., after that to move the data. DOS filenames are in the old 8.3 format (lower case) for Solaris 2.5.1, in long filename format (lower case) for Solaris 2.6, and in long filename format (mixed case, with optional lower case only) for Solaris 7 and higher. Note: The "mount -F pcfs . . ." command won't mount a FAT16 partition if it was fdisk-ed and format-ted with MS Windows 9x/ME/NT/2K/XP (at least for Solaris 2.6 and earlier. Any reports with Solaris 7/8?). Use DOS 6.x. HPFS (OS/2), FAT64 (Win NT), or NTFS (Win NT/2K/XP) partitions are not mountable under Solaris at all. FAT32 (Win 9x/ME/2K) are mountable with Solaris 7. There's some reports of not being able to mount FAT32 partitions if it's not the first partition. To mount the partitions automatically, put something like this in /etc/vfstab: #device device mount FS fsck mount #to mount to fsck point type pass at boot /dev/dsk/c0d0p0:1 - /c pcfs - yes - /dev/dsk/c0d1p0:1 - /d pcfs - yes - This mounts the DOS partitions (assuming it's the first partition) on /c and /d, respectively, on startup. For more info, see "man pcfs" [From Bob Palowoda's Solaris 2.4 x86 FAQ] Note: p0 refers to the first primary partition and p1, p2, . . . refers to the logical DOS partitions found in the extended DOS partition. Solaris/x86 does NOT support DOS directly in the 2nd, 3rd, or 4th primary partition of a disk. See BugID 1170107. Furthermore, Solaris/x86 does NOT support more than one Solaris fdisk partition on a physical disk nor more than 8 Solaris "slices" on a Solaris fdisk partition. [Thanks to Randy J. Parker, Norma Adamson, Rob Duarte, and Danny Huynh] _________________________________________________________________ (9.11) Does PartitionMagic and BootMagic understand Solaris partitions? Yes and no. BootMagic can be setup to boot Solaris partitions, since it dynamically marks the partition as active. The setup, however, doesn't automatically recognize these partitions as Solaris (but as Linux Swap partitions). PowerQuest's PartitionMagic can copy and move Solaris Partitions, with a low-level sector-by-sector copy. It cannot enlarge or shrink the Solaris Partition, which actually contain multiple "slices" of various Solaris ufs file systems. Furthermore, after a partition copy, the boot block needs to be restored. See the question elsewhere in this FAQ "How do I restore the Solaris boot block without reinstalling?" Grant Chivers provides these instructions to install Solaris on a Windows/Linux system with the PowerQuest Partition Editor: * Before installing Solaris use Ptedit, that comes with PowerQuest's Partition Magic, to write out a copy of all the data about the existing partitions because a Solaris install will change all this. * If there are Linux partitions (type 83) I change them to "Hidden ext2 partitions" (type 93), then reverse this after Solaris installation completed. * If installing Solaris to free disk space, I suggest you first create a partition (any type, such as OS/2) on the free disk space to get the hard disk data settings that will be used for the Solaris partition. Then delete the partition to regain free disk space (or use the Solaris fdisk when it prompts during install). * Install Solaris. Ensure that Solaris fdisk chooses the correct partition to format. * Reboot to Solaris again to finish setup, etc. * Reboot to DOS and run Ptedit again and adjust to previous configuration with the new Solaris partition being type 82. * Change the Linux partition back to 83 if it was changed previously. * Exit System commander and use DOS fdisk to check the origional active partition is regained. * Configure your bootloader. * I use V-Com's System Commander as a boot menu (lilo or Ntloader could be used instead but they require a little more configuration). * Reboot and it all should work. * Similarly, if installing Linux with an existing Solaris partition, change the partition type to another type (e.g., OS/2), install Linux and then change the Solaris partition back to type 83. _________________________________________________________________ (9.12) How do I access a DOS-format diskette from Solaris? Using volume management, type "volcheck". This forces Solaris to poll the diskette drive (and other drives). The diskette drive isn't polled automatically (unlike the CD-ROM), as it would quickly wear it out. You should see something like this typing "mount": /floppy/unnamed_floppy on /vol/dev/diskette0/unnamed_floppy read/write on Wed Jan 20 09:05:44 1999 To unmount using volume management, type "eject". After a message, you can manually eject the floppy safely. You can also mount the diskette in a similar way to hard drive partitions without using volume management (the old way): mount -F pcfs /dev/diskette /mnt Don't forget to turn of the volume management before you try to do this from the command line or you'll get a "device busy" message. "/etc/init.d/volmgt stop" will stop the volume manager. To restart the volume manager, "/etc/init.d/volmgt start". [From Bob Palowoda's Solaris 2.4 x86 FAQ and Casper Dik's Solaris 2 FAQ] The GNU mtools package allows access of DOS diskettes without being root. The diskette isn't mounted, but instead special commands with the prefix m, such as mcopy, mdir, mdel, etc. are available. _________________________________________________________________ (9.13) Does Solaris mount and recognize MS Windows 9x/ME/2K/XP partitions with long file names (VFAT)? Solaris 2.6 and above uses the "long" (VFAT) file names, but earlier versions of Solaris use the "short" (DOS/FAT/8.3) file name (for example, "progra~1"). Solaris 2.6 recognizes the case (e.g. "Program Files/"), which may be optionally folded to lower case ("program files") with the foldcase mount option. Earlier "Solari" folds DOS file names to lower case only. VFAT refers to the file naming convention and is completely separate from FAT16/FAT32 (see a earlier question for that). [Thanks to Nelson Chan] _________________________________________________________________ (9.14) How can I make my Solaris files easily available to MS Windows 9x/ME/NT/2K/XP on a network? Solaris PC NetLink provides "a complete set of Windows NT Network Services," which includes SAMBA-type NT naming, file, print, directory, and security services for Windows 3.11/95/98/NT clients. It is based on Microsoft NT 4 code licensed via AT&T ("Advanced Server for Unix"). It used to be available for Solaris/x86, but is now available only for Sun Enterprise servers. In any case I prefer SAMBA, a robust, open source package that provides SMB services (aka MS Windows networking) from UNIX. This allows LAN-Manager-type browsing and "Connect Network Drive," and provides access to UNIX print servers. SAMBA can act as a file, print, browser master, and WINS servers, but not as a domain controller (that's in the works). SAMBA also serves files faster than NetLink (or Windows, for that matter). However, NetLink implements SMB better than SAMBA, since it uses Microsoft-licensed code, while SAMBA must reverse-engineer the code. For the Samba FAQ, sources, binaries, and other information, see the SAMBA web page at: http://samba.anu.edu.au/samba/ Sun has a commercial product, Solstice LM Manager, that works (poorly) with MS LAN Manager/SMB and links in with NIS/DNS. _________________________________________________________________ (9.15) How can I make my Solaris files easily available to an Apple Macintosh on a network? Use CAP, an excellent open source AppleTalk server software for UNIX. The Columbia AppleTalk Package (CAP) implements the AppleTalk protocol stack on UNIX The main applications provide an AppleShare 2.1 compatible server (aufs), a LaserWriter Spooler (lwsrv) and a program to print to LaserWriters (papif). For more information, see: http://www.cs.mu.oz.au/appletalk/cap.html _________________________________________________________________ (9.16) How do I access a Mac diskette from Solaris? Use a emulator package like Mae from Apple (I understand Mae is not supported and has some MT-unsafe bugs). For "sneakernet," you can also use a DOS diskette, as both Solaris and Apple support these. _________________________________________________________________ (9.17) What is WABI? WABI is "Windows Application Binary Interface." WABI 2.2 (which ships with Solaris 2.5.1) runs old 16-bit native MS Windows 3.x programs. No support is planned for 32-bit MS Windows 9x/ME/NT/2K/XP programs. Support for WABI has been dropped starting with Solaris 7. and is replaced by SunPCi (see the next question). [Adapted from Casper Dik's Solaris 2 FAQ] _________________________________________________________________ (9.18) Can I use SunPCi on Solaris/x86? No. SunPCi is an add-on card and software for Solaris on SPARC only. SunPC emulates a PC with the card and Caldera's "DR-DOS" allowing Windows 3.1/9x to be installed on top of it. The card has a 300 MHz K6-2 AMD processor and RAM. It emulates hard and floppy drives, serial ports, SuperVGA, mouse, keyboard, etc. Generally, SunPCi or it's older cousin, SunPC, emulates the PC environment OK, although it performs more slowly than a straight PC (your mileage may vary). Software that requires a parallel port hardware key (dongle) won't work. _________________________________________________________________ (9.19) Will Linux programs run on Solaris 2/x86? The Lxrun program, originally written for SCO, is now available on Solaris/x86. The Lxrun emulator allows one to execute Linux binaries, both in ELF and a.out Linux formats. Linux ext2 read-only filesystem support from Solaris (mount/unmount) is included with ext2fs.tar.gz. To install, first install package SFWlxrun from the Solaris Software Companion CD. Setup or mount a ext2fs filesystem, say at /linux (as explained in a question below on ext2fs). To use, run programs or shells prefixed with lxrun. For example: $ uname -a SunOS dany.drydog.com 5.8 Generic_108529-06 i86pc i386 i86pc $ lxrun /linux/bin/rpm -q redhat-release redhat-release-6.2-1 $ lxrun /linux/bin/uname -a SunOS dany.drydog.com 5.8 Generic_108529-06 i86pc unknown To avoid prefixing linux filenames with "/linux/" (or wherever your ext2fs is mounted), and setup a PATHMAP file (to map Linux filenames to Solaris names). For Sun's SFWlxrun version of lxrun, type this, as root, to set it up: (cd /opt/sfw/lib; cp -p PATHMAP-style2 PATHMAP) For other builds of lxrun, PATHMAP may be at /usr/local/lxrun/PATHMAP. The file location can also be changed with environment variable $PATHMAP. For more information see the following links: * The Solaris Lxrun Technical Overview (FAQ) is at: http://developers.Sun.COM/solaris/articles/lxrun/ * And another Sun article is at: http://www.Sun.COM/linux/lxrun/ * The Lxrun home page is at http://www.ugcs.caltech.edu/~steven/lxrun/ _________________________________________________________________ (9.20) How can I get the DOS and UNIX clock to agree on Solaris/x86? After installation, run the command /usr/sbin/rtc -z $TZ, where $TZ is your timezone. The default root crontab runs /usr/sbin/rtc -c daily. That way your clock will give the proper time whether you boot Solaris or MS-DOS/MS Windows. If you're running Windows NT and find the clock "overadjusted" twice a year (that is, it gains or loses an extra hour), you should comment out (with a "#") the "rtc" line in file /var/spool/cron/crontabs/root. [Adapted from Casper Dik's Solaris 2 FAQ] _________________________________________________________________ (9.21) Is Solaris x86 able to execute Solaris SPARC applications? There's no way to run a SPARC binary on an x86 machine unless you wrote an emulator for the SPARC CPU and ran it. [Thanks to Doug McIntyre] _________________________________________________________________ (9.22) Will my old applications from SVR3 or SCO run on Solaris 2/x86? Solaris x86 has an emulation mode that should run the majority of well-behaved SVR3 (including SCO UNIX), and SCO Xenix binaries. Most SVR3 stuff appears to work under Solaris 2.4. Applications from any other vendor's standards-conforming 386/486 SVR4 should also run. The main standard being iBCS (Intel Binary Compatibility Standard). However, some vendors have made incompatible changes to their SVR4 release and programs linked on those versions may not work. Future versions of Solaris 2.x for Intel will address some/most of those incompatibilities. UNIXWare is one of the offenders. [From Casper Dik's Solaris 2 FAQ] Linux binaries will run with the assistance of lxrun. _________________________________________________________________ (9.23) Will my application from Solaris/SPARC work on Solaris/x86? I have the source. Yes and no. Generally applications that don't make assumptions about computer architecture will work. That is, code shouldn't depend on structure or union alignments, or in what order a number appears in a word ("big endian" SPARC or "little endian" Intel). Don't use functions labeled SPARC or x86 only in the man pages. In other words, "well-behaved" C (or other language) programs should recompile fine. _________________________________________________________________ (9.24) Can I access Solaris/x86 partitions from Linux? Yes. Read-only access is available. You need to have Linux 2.1.x or greater. To see if your Linux kernel recognizes Solaris partitions, type the following on Linux: dmesg | grep solaris You should get something like this: hda: hda1 hda2 This says that Solaris lives in the 2nd partition (hda2), slices 0 to hda11. To mount a partition, type something like this: mount -r -t ufs -o ro,ufstype=sunx86 /dev/hda5 /mnt This will mount the root slice (s0) on /mnt read-only. Warning: Softlinks that are relative to root (e.g., /usr/local pointing to /local) will point to the wrong place. To avoid this problem, change these links in Solaris to relative soft-links (e.g., /usr/local to ../local). This can be automated with /etc/fstab. If you don't want the partitions mounted at boot, add ",noauto" after "defaults,ro" (no space). If you want non-root users to be able to mount partitions, add ",user" (careful!): # /etc/fstab # . . . #Device Mount FS Fsck Mount at #to mount point type Options pass boot # Slice /dev/hda5 /solaris ufs defaults,ro,ufstype=sun 0 0 # s0 /dev/hda8 /solaris/var ufs defaults,ro,ufstype=sun 0 0 # s6 /dev/hda9 /solaris/opt ufs defaults,ro,ufstype=sun 0 0 # s3 /dev/hda10 /solaris/usr ufs defaults,ro,ufstype=sun 0 0 # s5 /dev/hda11 /solaris/export/home ufs defaults,ro,ufstype=sun 0 0 # s7 # Note: slice s2, by convention, indicates the whole disk If, when you type "dmesg" above, you don't see Solaris partitions recognized, you might have to rebuild your Linux kernel. Be sure to specify "y" in /usr/src/linux/.config when you type "make config": CONFIG_UFS_FS=y CONFIG_SOLARIS_x86_PARTITION=y Linux 2.2 has experimental write support to Solaris partitions. If you get this message when mounting in read-write mode: "... ufs_read_super: fs needs fsck" then UFS function ufs_read_super somehow decided the fs isn't clean, and therefore set the RDONLY bit. Type something like this to re-mount in read/write mode (replace "hda5" with your file system): mount -o remount,rw /dev/hda5 There's another linux kernel configuration question, CONFIG_SMD_DISKLABEL, that applies only to Sparc Solaris disks, which are in yet another format. The answer to that question doesn't matter for Solaris/x86 filesystems. _________________________________________________________________ (9.25) Can I access Linux (ext2fs) partitions from Solaris? Yes. The Lxrun program (see the question elsewhere above on Lxrun) includes software for Linux ext2 read-only filesystem support from Solaris (mount/unmount) is in file ext2fs.tar.gz. 1. Obtain the ext2fs.tar.gz file. Make sure you have the version dated July 16, 2000 (115097 bytes). The earlier version dated April 23, 2000 (111226 bytes) never worked, at least for me (I use Solaris 8). You can obtain the latter (working) version from ftp://sun.drydog.com/pub/solaris/ext2fs.2000.7.16.tar.gz. If you get "ext2fs: undefined symbol 'vfs_devsearch'" messages in /var/adm/messages when you try and mount, you have the earlier (broken) version. 2. Untar file "gzcat ext2fs.tar.gz | tar xvf -", and either rebuild from source (preferred) or use the prebuilt binaries. 3. Become root and install the files under directory ext2fs/i386: cd ext2fs mkdir -p /usr/man/man7fs cp ext2fs.7fs /usr/man/man7fs cp mount_ext2fs.1m /usr/man/man1m cd i386 /usr/sbin/install -m 755 -u root:sys ext2fs /usr/kernel/fs/ /usr/sbin/install -m 755 -u root:sys -d /usr/lib/fs/ext2fs/ /usr/sbin/install -m 555 -u root:bin mount /usr/lib/fs/ext2fs/ /usr/sbin/modunload -i 0 # remove old ext2fs module, if present 4. Make your mount point: "mkdir /linux" 5. Find your Linux partition and try and mount it. For SCSI, mount it similar to this: /usr/sbin/mount -r -F ext2fs /dev/dsk/c0t0d0p1 /linux For ATAPI, mount it similar to this (no "t0"): /usr/sbin/mount -r -F ext2fs /dev/dsk/c0d0p1 /linux "c0d0p1" indicates fdisk partition 1 (2nd partition) on disk 0 of ATAPI controller 0. See the question above on mounting DOS filesystems for decoding /dev/dsk/c* device names. 6. If you installed the ext2fs correctly and specified the correct partition, you should see something like this from mount, modinfo, and ls. (My linux partition is on the 2nd disk, 3rd partition.) # mount | grep /linux /linux on /dev/dsk/c0d1p2 read only/setuid/dev=1980052 on Sat Mar 31 14:57 2001 # modinfo | grep ext2fs 186 fe9688f1 5e98 19 1 ext2fs (Linux Second Extended Filesystem) # ls /linux bin etc lib proc sbin tmp boot home lost+found root var usr dev include mnt 7. Once you found and mounted the correct linux partition, add and add an entry to /etc/vfstab similar to one of the following. For SCSI, it might look like this: /dev/dsk/c0t0d0p1 - /linux ext2fs - no ro For ATAPI, it might look like this (no "t0"): /dev/dsk/c0d0p1 - /linux ext2fs - no ro (Use "yes" instead of "no" if you want it mounted automatically at boot). 8. Repeat for other linux filesystems, if desired. Once you mount a ext2fs filesystem, you can execute Linux programs using lxrun (see the question on lxrun, above). For further information, see the ext2fs(7fs) and mount_ext2fs(1m) man pages you installed above. _________________________________________________________________ (9.26) What are some books on Windows NT/Solaris integration? The best book is, IMHO: David Gunter, Steven Burnett, and Lola Gunter, Windows NT and UNIX Integration Guide (Osborne McGraw-Hill, 1997), ISBN 0-07882395-1, http://sun.drydog.com/bookstore/#0078823951 Also see the question above on SAMBA. _________________________________________________________________ (9.27) How can I view MS Word files in Solaris? Multiple applications support viewing MS Word files. None are perfect, as MS Word file format is a trade secret and changes constantly. StarOffice, produced by a German subsidiary of Sun, supports MS Word, basic PowerPoint, Excel files, and other formats. StarOffice 6 is available for US $75.95 (UK £52.99) at computer stores and http://www.Sun.COM/staroffice/. StarOffice is my preferred word processor because it's available on multiple platforms (Solaris x86 & SPARC, Linux, MS Windows) and because it has a familiar MS Office-type interface. OpenOffice, an open-source spin-off from StarOffice, is free. It doesn't contain some components of StarOffice (such as some fonts and image libraries), but is perfectly acceptible for casual use. Solaris x86 binaries are available, as are SPARC, Windows, and Linux. Experimental "developer" Apple Mac OSx binaries are available. AbiWord is also available for Solaris Intel. AbiWord only does word processing, but I understand it has all the basic functionality. I have no personal experience with it however. It's available in source form only, so you have to build it yourself (download the gcc compiler). Good luck! If anyone has had success or experience with AbiWord on Solaris Intel, email me at . Corel WordPerfect 8, although getting a little "long in the tooth" (outdated), it is still available. WordPerfect for UNIX supports WordPerfect, Word (old and new), HTML, RTF, FrameMaker, Applix, and several other document formats. Price varies and it's not cheap. There's no Sparc Intel binary available, but some people run Linux Intel binary on Solaris using lxrun software (see elsewhere in this fax). See http://www.corel.com/wpunix/ The VistaSource's Applixware Office suite can read Word files, among other formats, as above, and comes with a spreadsheet and other applications. I still prefer WordPerfect for word processing, but Applix Office offers a broader array of applications. Applix Office is also getting "long in the tooth." See http://www.vistasource.com/products/axware/ You can also try wv (free), which converts Word 8 (Office 97), but not older, Word files to HTML. WordView is available in source form (mostly Perl and some C) from http://www.wvWare.com/ For the above software, more complicated Word format files cannot be converted, especially those saved with "Quick Save" enabled. Be aware that these office suites seem to require systems with 128MB of memory or more to perform reasonably (in my experience). Finally, you CAN'T use Sun's PC File Viewer. It's available (and free) only for the SPARC-resident Solaris 2.6 PC File Viewer is Sun's relabeled version of Inso Corp.'s (http://www.inso.com/) QuickView Plus. See http://www.Sun.COM/desktop/products/software/pcviewer.html _________________________________________________________________ (9.28) I downloaded Internet Explorer (or Media Player) but it doesn't install. What's wrong? Microsoft Internet Explorer for Solaris or Microsoft Media Player for Solaris are available only for the SPARC architectures. You'll get this message if you try to install it with ie4setup: "unexpected ( on line one" or "syntax error at line 1: '('" See the next question on Netscape. _________________________________________________________________ (9.29) Where can I get Netscape or other web browsers for Solaris Intel? Netscape comes with Solaris 8. For Solaris 7 or earlier or for the "domestic" version with 128-bit (high) encryption, you can download it from ftp://ftp.netscape.com/pub/communicator/english/4.79/unix/support ed/sunos551_x86/ This address changes slightly for each language and version. Or try http://www.netscape.com/download/ Netscape is available in pkgadd/webstart formats from Sun (including 128-bit encryption) from http://www.Sun.COM/solaris/netscape/ This seems to be better integrated with Solaris (especially Java), although they are usually a point release or two behind. There's also a FAQ here. Mozilla. Mozilla is like Netscape 6, but more cutting-edge (and slightly more buggy), but I prefer it. Mozilla allows you to disable pop-up adds and it doesn't have the AOL add-on junk either. Mozilla is, however, missing a spell checker. Solaris x86 binaries are available at http://www.mozilla.org/releases/ For troubleshooting tips with Solaris Mozilla, see http://www.mozilla.org/unix/solaris.html Internet Explorer is available only for SPARC Solaris and will never be available for Solaris x86 (see the previous question). Opera Software will release "soon" (June 2001) a beta version of the Opera web browser for Solaris x86. It's faster and uses less memory than Netscape or Mozilla, When it's released, it will come in two versions, a (free) version with ads and a version without ads, but you pay money for it. See http://www.opera.com/ _________________________________________________________________ (9.30) Can I mount other ufs disks, say from BSDi/FreeBSD, and vice versa? Maybe. First, although Solaris, BSDi, FreeBSD, and NetBSD share a common-heritage file system, the Berkeley-style ufs, Solaris has made extensions. The 32-bit UID field has been modified in Solaris to be a pointer to a parallel "Shadow inode" with Solaris ACL information. Also, the superblock has an additional inode field in Solaris and 2 fields have different byte swappings. Reportedly, you can mount, say, zip disks from FreeBSD, on Solaris by doing a fsck on them before mounting. Fsck makes these fields Solaris- compatible. Your mileage may vary and you should test this (in both directions) before trying this on live data. _________________________________________________________________ (9.31) How can I use a disk partition on Solaris 2.x which was previously dedicated to MS Windows 9x/ME/NT/2K/XP (or other OS) as dual boot? On Solaris 2.x, use fdisk to find your disk partition table. For example, on an ATAPI drive, # fdisk /dev/rdsk/c0d0p0 would show something like the following: Total disk size is 524 cylinders Cylinder size is 16065 (512 byte) blocks Cylinders Partition Status Type Start End Length % ========= ====== ============ ===== === ====== === 1 Solaris 0 260 261 50 2 Active Solaris 261 522 262 50 Where "Partition 1" was used for Windows 95. It was deleted and recreated with "Solaris" type. Make a ufs filesystem on the partition. (You can not subdivide this fdisk partition into Solaris slices). For example, # mkfs -F ufs /dev/rdsk/c0d0p1 4192965 where number 4192965 = 261 * 16065 is the total number of blocks on this partition, calculated as the cylinder length on this partition (261 from the above partition table) times the cylinder size (16065 blocks as shown in the header of the partition table.) Mount the filesystem as usual. For example: # mount /dev/dsk/c0d0p1 /export/home [Thanks to Michael Wang. Reference: Sun Microsystems INFODOC ID: 13142] _________________________________________________________________ (9.32) How can I convert a DOS/Windows text file to a Unix text file? dos2unix unix2dos The former removes the ^M and ^Z characters and the latter adds them. See man dos2unix and man unix2dos for details. _________________________________________________________________ [allowsmilie] => 1 [showsignature] => 0 [ipaddress] => [iconid] => 0 [visible] => 1 [attach] => 0 [infraction] => 0 [reportthreadid] => 0 [isusenetpost] => 1 [msgid] => [ref] => [htmlstate] => on_nl2br [postusername] => Dan [ip] => faq@drydog.com [isdeleted] => 0 [usergroupid] => [membergroupids] => [displaygroupid] => [password] => [passworddate] => [email] => [styleid] => [parentemail] => [homepage] => [icq] => [aim] => [yahoo] => [msn] => [skype] => [showvbcode] => [showbirthday] => [usertitle] => [customtitle] => [joindate] => [daysprune] => [lastvisit] => [lastactivity] => [lastpost] => [lastpostid] => [posts] => [reputation] => [reputationlevelid] => [timezoneoffset] => [pmpopup] => [avatarid] => [avatarrevision] => [profilepicrevision] => [sigpicrevision] => [options] => [akvbghsfs_optionsfield] => [birthday] => [birthday_search] => [maxposts] => [startofweek] => [referrerid] => [languageid] => [emailstamp] => [threadedmode] => [autosubscribe] => [pmtotal] => [pmunread] => [salt] => [ipoints] => [infractions] => [warnings] => [infractiongroupids] => [infractiongroupid] => [adminoptions] => [profilevisits] => [friendcount] => [friendreqcount] => [vmunreadcount] => [vmmoderatedcount] => [socgroupinvitecount] => [socgroupreqcount] => [pcunreadcount] => [pcmoderatedcount] => [gmmoderatedcount] => [assetposthash] => [fbuserid] => [fbjoindate] => [fbname] => [logintype] => [fbaccesstoken] => [newrepcount] => [vbseo_likes_in] => [vbseo_likes_out] => [vbseo_likes_unread] => [temp] => [field1] => [field2] => [field3] => [field4] => [field5] => [subfolders] => [pmfolders] => [buddylist] => [ignorelist] => [signature] => [searchprefs] => [rank] => [icontitle] => [iconpath] => [avatarpath] => [hascustomavatar] => 0 [avatardateline] => [avwidth] => [avheight] => [edit_userid] => [edit_username] => [edit_dateline] => [edit_reason] => [hashistory] => [pagetext_html] => [hasimages] => [signatureparsed] => [sighasimages] => [sigpic] => [sigpicdateline] => [sigpicwidth] => [sigpicheight] => [postcount] => 1 [islastshown] => [isfirstshown] => 1 [attachments] => [allattachments] => ) --> Solaris x86 FAQ 1/2 - Sun Solaris

Solaris x86 FAQ 1/2 - Sun Solaris

Archive-name: Solaris2/x86/FAQ Posting-Frequency: monthly Last-modified: 2003/09/20 URL: http://sun.drydog.com/faq/ Version: 2.25 Copyright: Copyright © 1997-2003 Dan Anderson. All rights reserved. Maintainer: Dan Anderson <com>, San Diego, California, USA __________________________________________________ _______________ (1.0) TABLE OF CONTENTS (2.0) INTRODUCTION (3.0) RESOURCES (3.1) + What web and FTP sites do I need to know about? (3.2) How do I subscribe to the Solaris/x86 mailing list? (3.3) Where can I obtain Solaris 2/x86 maintenance updates? (3.4) Where can I obtain Solaris 2/x86 patches? (3.5) How can I obtain freeware, shareware, and GNU software on a CD-ROM? (3.6) What UNIX-like operating systems are available on x86? (3.7) ...

  1. #1

    Default Solaris x86 FAQ 1/2

    Archive-name: Solaris2/x86/FAQ
    Posting-Frequency: monthly
    Last-modified: 2003/09/20
    URL: http://sun.drydog.com/faq/
    Version: 2.25
    Copyright: Copyright © 1997-2003 Dan Anderson. All rights reserved.
    Maintainer: Dan Anderson <com>, San Diego, California, USA

    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (1.0) TABLE OF CONTENTS

    (2.0) INTRODUCTION

    (3.0) RESOURCES

    (3.1) + What web and FTP sites do I need to know about?
    (3.2) How do I subscribe to the Solaris/x86 mailing list?
    (3.3) Where can I obtain Solaris 2/x86 maintenance updates?
    (3.4) Where can I obtain Solaris 2/x86 patches?
    (3.5) How can I obtain freeware, shareware, and GNU software on a
    CD-ROM?
    (3.6) What UNIX-like operating systems are available on x86?
    (3.7) What books are available on Solaris x86?
    (3.8) What magazine articles are available on Solaris x86?
    (3.9) What's new for Solaris 9 Intel?
    (3.10) + What's new for the future Solaris?

    (4.0) PRE-INSTALLATION
    (4.1) What information should I have before an install?
    (4.2) What hardware is supported by Solaris 2.x for Intel?
    (4.3) What size disks and partitions should I have?
    (4.4) What are SCSI IDs expected by Solaris x86?
    (4.5) What video card/monitor combination works best?
    (4.6) Is Plug-and-Play (PNP) supported by Solaris/x86?
    (4.7) Is Advanced Power Management (APM) supported by Solaris/x86?
    (4.8) Are "floppy tape" devices supported by Solaris x86?
    (4.9) How can I get a "free" copy of Solaris?
    (4.10) What's missing from the "free" copy of Solaris that's in
    the commercial version?
    (4.11) + How do you create a Device Configuration Assistant (DCA)
    Diskette in DOS/Windows?
    (4.12) How can I get Solaris to see the third ATAPI controller?
    (4.13) Are Ultra DMA (UDMA) drives supported?
    (4.14) + Are Universal Serial Bus (USB) devices supported?
    (4.15) Are Microsoft Intellimouse mice supported?
    (4.16) What's the difference between Solaris x86 Server and
    Solaris x86 Desktop?
    (4.17) Solaris doesn't recognize all of my large (>40GB) ATAPI.
    For example, a 60GB disk shows up as only 28GB.
    (4.18) Is Solaris Intel 64-bit aware?
    (4.19) What's the difference between partitions and slices?
    (4.20) I already used the 4 primary fdisk partition table entries.
    Can I create a partition for Solaris within my extended partition?
    (4.21) What are the IRQ assignments?
    (4.22) Are Laptops supported for Solaris x86?

    (5.0) INSTALLATION
    (5.1) How long does the install take?
    (5.2) My ATAPI CD-ROM isn't recognized during install by Solaris'
    FCS MCB and it's not in the HCL. What can I do?
    (5.3) What kind of problems might I encounter installing my SCSI
    system?
    (5.4) What do I do when the install hangs/panics?
    (5.5) I'm trying to install Solaris/x86 on my ATAPI drive.
    However, the installation program says the root partition must end
    within the first 1023 cylinders of the disk. What can I do?
    (5.6) Does Solaris x86 prefer to have the motherboard BIOS set to
    NORMAL or LBA for ATAPI disks?
    (5.7) Why does a Solaris install to a disk with valid,
    pre-existing fdisk partitions sometimes fail?
    (5.8) How do I add a 8 GB or greater ATAPI drive to Solaris 7 or
    earlier?
    (5.9) How do I install or use the "2 of 2" installation CD?
    (5.10) How do I install or use the doentation CD?
    (5.11) Help! I get a "VTOC" or cannot mount error installing
    Solaris.

    (6.0) POST-INSTALLATION (CUSTOMIZATION)
    (6.1) How do I add additional drives?
    (6.2) How do I add or configure users, printers, serial ports,
    software, etc.?
    (6.3) How do I suppress the banner page on my printer?
    (6.4) How do I set up an HP-compatible printer to print PostScript
    files?
    (6.5) How can I improve disk and graphic performance?
    (6.6) How do I get Solaris to recognize a NE2000 compatible NIC
    card?
    (6.7) How do I get Solaris to recognize generic network cards with
    well-known chipsets?
    (6.7) How do I change the IP address or hostname or both on
    Solaris/x86?
    (6.8) How do I configure another serial port, /dev/ttyb-ttyd
    (COM2-4)?
    (6.9) How do I disable Solaris/x86 from probing the UPS on COM2?
    (6.10) How do I set up Solaris/x86 to use PPP to connect to an
    ISP?
    (6.11) Is there any open source PPP that's easier to use than
    Sun's aspppd?
    (6.12) Is there any commercial PPP that's easier to use?
    (6.14) Help! My USRobotics Internal modem doesn't work with PPP.
    (6.15) PPP runs extremely slow. What's wrong?
    (6.16) How do I configure PPP using Dynamic IP Addresses (DHCP)?
    (6.17) How do I configure my SoundBlaster card?
    (6.18) How do I enable the audio output from my CDROM to my SBPRO
    card?
    (6.19) Is Solaris/x86 Year 2000 (Y2K) compliant?
    (6.20) Can I use Solaris/x86 to setup a "headless" server?
    (6.21) Can I get a Sun-style keyboard (Ctrl & Caps Lock reversed)
    for S/x86?
    (6.22) Can I run multiple terminals on the console of Solaris x86
    like those supported on Linux, FreeBSD, Interactive Unix, and SCO?
    (6.23) How do I upgrade my video graphics card?
    (6.24) How to I burn a CD-R or CD-RW with Solaris?
    (6.25) Is IPv6 available for Solaris/x86?
    (6.26) Is IPsec available for Solaris/x86?
    (6.27) Is Kerberos 5 available for Solaris/x86?
    (6.28) + Does Solaris x86 support multiple processors?
    (6.29) How do I uncompress a .gz file?
    (6.30) Why doesn't /usr/bin/cc work?
    (6.31) How do you get PGP 2.6.2 to compile on Solaris/x86?
    (6.32) How do you connect Solaris to my cable modem?
    (6.33) How do you setup Solaris to use Time Warner's RoadRunner
    service?
    (6.34) How do I force the speed and/or duplex of my network
    interfaces (ndd(1M) doesn't work)?
    (6.35) Why can't I create a home directory under /home?
    (6.36) Is Veritas file system available for Solaris Intel?
    (6.37) How to I use Zip and Jaz Drives for Solaris Intel?
    (6.38) How to I use Linux NIC drivers for Solaris Intel?
    (6.39) How to I add color to "ls" or "vi"?
    (6.40) How to I move the disk containing Solaris from the ATAPI
    primary master controller to the secondary controller or slave
    connector (or both)?
    (6.41) I've installed Solaris using Sun's brain dead disk slice
    defaults. How do I modify my slices?
    (6.42) How do I mirror root with Disksuite when /boot is a
    separate fdisk partition?
    (6.43) Is ISDN supported for Solaris x86?
    (6.44) Is there a substitute available for PRNG /dev/random for
    Solaris x86?
    (6.45) What are some good, easty-to-use printing solutions for
    Solaris?
    (6.46) What is the Solaris 9 Data Encryption Supplement?

    (7.0) TROUBLESHOOTING
    (7.1) What can I do if Solaris won't boot?
    (7.2) How do I restore the Solaris boot block without
    reinstalling?
    (7.3) What can I do during the Solaris/x86 booting sequence?
    (7.4) How do I logon as root if the password doesn't work
    anymore?
    (7.5) My licensed software fails because the host ID is 0. What's
    wrong?
    (7.6) How can I fix Netscape Communicator to render fonts
    correctly on S/x86?
    (7.7) Why doesn't Netscape run as root?
    (7.8) I moved my PCI host adapter to another slot and the system
    won't boot!
    (7.9) Why is Solaris always booting into the Device Configuration
    Assistant (DCA)?
    (7.10) What is the equivalent of STOP-A for Solaris Intel?
    (7.11) How can I reboot Solaris x86 without it asking me to
    "press a key" before rebooting?
    (7.12) Help! I'm stuck in the "Boot Assistant" and can't boot.
    What do I do?
    (7.13) Help! I get error 2 or error 8 while applying patches.
    What do I do?
    (7.14) How do I prevent kdmconfig from running on boot up when I
    know my keyboard, display, and mouse configuration has not changed?
    (7.15) I get this error message: "can't get local host's domain
    name" or "The local host's domain name hasn't been set." What do I do?

    (8.0) X WINDOWS
    (8.1) How do I find a Solaris video driver for my graphics card?
    (8.2) How can I use a XFree86 video driver with XSun?
    (8.3) How do I install XFree86 on Solaris?
    (8.4) How do I configure 64K colors for CDE?
    (8.5) How do I Add GNOME, KDE, or other non-CDE Window
    (8.6) Where can I get GNOME or KDE packages for Solaris/x86?
    (8.7) Are TrueType fonts supported in Solaris?
    (8.8) How do I make XFree86 version 3.x- or XiG Xaccel 5.0.3-
    work with Solaris 8?
    (8.9) How do I disable CDE auto-start upon booting multi-user?
    (8.10) How do I su(1) to another user and run an X application?
    (8.11) Does Solaris Intel support multiple heads?
    (8.12) How do I get my 2-button mouse to emulate 3 buttons?
    (8.13) How do I make the NumLock key go on automatically when I
    log in?
    (8.14) How do I get admintool(1M) and some other Solaris GUI's to
    run with XFree86?

    (9.0) INTEROPERABILITY WITH OTHER OPERATING SYSTEMS
    (9.1) Can I install Solaris x86 on a system that already has MS
    Windows 9x/ME/NT/2K/XP (among other systems)?
    (9.2) How can I use MS Windows' NT/2K Loader to boot Solaris/x86?
    (9.3) How can I use the Solaris boot manager to boot Windows NT?
    (9.4) How can I use System Commander to boot Solaris/x86 and
    other systems?
    (9.5) Can I install Linux and Solaris on the same drive?
    (9.6) * How can I use GRUB to boot Solaris/x86?
    (9.7) How can I use LILO to boot Solaris/x86 on the primary slave
    ATAPI?
    (9.8) How can I use OS-BS or System Selector to boot Solaris/x86?
    (9.9) How can I boot both Solaris/x86 and Win NT on the same
    disk?
    (9.10) How do I mount a DOS partition from the hard drive?
    (9.11) Does PartitionMagic and BootMagic understand Solaris
    partitions?
    (9.12) How do I access a DOS-format diskette from Solaris?
    (9.13) Does Solaris mount and recognize MS Windows 9x/ME/2K/XP
    partitions with long file names (VFAT)?
    (9.14) How can I make my Solaris files easily available to MS
    Windows 9x/ME/NT/2K/XP on a network?
    (9.15) How can I make my Solaris files easily available to an
    Apple Macintosh on a network?
    (9.16) How do I access a Mac diskette from Solaris?
    (9.17) What is WABI?
    (9.18) Can I use SunPCi on Solaris/x86?
    (9.19) + Will Linux programs run on Solaris 2/x86?
    (9.20) How can I get the DOS and UNIX clock to agree on
    Solaris/x86?
    (9.21) Is Solaris x86 able to execute Solaris SPARC applications?
    (9.22) Will my old applications from SVR3 or SCO run on Solaris
    2/x86?
    (9.23) Will my application from Solaris/SPARC work on
    Solaris/x86? I have the source.
    (9.24) Can I access Solaris/x86 partitions from Linux?
    (9.25) Can I access Linux (ext2fs) partitions from Solaris?
    (9.26) What are some books on Wijdows NT/Solaris integration?
    (9.27) How can I view MS Word files in Solaris?
    (9.28) I downloaded Internet Explorer (or Media Player) but it
    doesn't install. What's wrong?
    (9.29) Where can I get Netscape or another web browser for
    Solaris Intel?
    (9.30) Can I mount other ufs disks, say from BSDi/FreeBSD, and
    vice versa?
    (9.31) How can I use a disk partition on Solaris 2.x which was
    previously dedicated to MS Windows 9x/ME/NT/2K/XP (or other OS) as
    dual boot?
    (9.32) How can I convert a DOS/Windows text file to a Unix text
    file?
    (9.33) Can VMWARE be used with Solaris x86?
    (9.34) Is Solaris on Intel really "Slowaris"--slower than other
    Intel-based operating systems?
    (9.35) How can I remove (uninstall) Solaris from my hard drive?
    (9.36) I can install Linux on a system with Solaris x86, but why
    can't I boot it?
    (9.37) What hardware solutions are available for dual booting?

    *New question since last month.
    +Significantly revised answer since last month.

    Copyright © 1997-2003 Dan Anderson. All rights reserved.
    http://sun.drydog.com/faq/
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (2.0) INTRODUCTION

    The Solaris x86 FAQ: Frequently-asked Questions about Solaris on Intel
    - x86.

    This posting contains frequently-asked questions, with answers, about
    the Sun Solaris 2 Operating System on the Intel Platform (x86) found
    in the alt.solaris.x86 and comp.unix.solaris USENET
    newsgroups. The alt.solaris.x86 newsgroup covers Solaris on the
    Intel platform, for version 2.5 and higher. The most up-to-date copy
    of this FAQ is at http://sun.drydog.com/faq/

    The comp.unix.solaris newsgroup is for Solaris on all platforms--
    Sparc or Intel. Please also consult Casper Dik's excellent FAQ on
    Solaris 2, which mostly applies to Solaris x86 too. It's at:
    http://www.wins.uva.nl/pub/solaris/solaris2/ and elsewhere.
    Solaris 7 and 8 are also known as SunOS 5.7 and 5.8. Solaris 2.x is
    also known as SunOS 5.x.

    For earlier versions of Solaris/x86, please see the (somewhat dated)
    "Solaris 2.4 x86 FAQ" by Bob Palowoda archived at various dusty
    corners on the net. The (mostly historical) Sun 386i (Roadrunner) is
    covered in Ralph Neill's (hard to find) FAQ.

    If you post questions to alt.solaris.x86 or
    comp.unix.solaris, please be sure to indicate:
    * the machine type and brief configuration, e.g. Pentium II 450 MHz,
    128 MB RAM, 200 MB swap space, 8 GB XYZ hard drive, etc.,
    * the exact Solaris version number, i.e. Solaris 7 is NOT
    sufficient, whereas "Solaris/x86 7 HW 3/99" is more useful.

    I'm doing this on my own time as a public service. PLEASE DO NOT ASK
    ME QUESTIONS THAT SHOULD BE ASKED OF SUN. Although I am now employed
    by Sun Microsystems, as of February 1999, I have never worked at Sun
    on this particular product. Nothing I say is endorsed or approved by
    Sun. If you suspect you have software defect problems, please call
    1-800-SOFTSPT (1-800-763-8778 or 1-510-460-3267). If you have hardware
    problems call your hardware vendor. If you are outside the United
    States, contact your local Sun representative.

    PLEASE DO NOT ASK ME QUESTIONS THAT SHOULD BE POSTED TO
    alt.solaris.x86 or comp.unix.solaris. I don't have the time
    to diagnose individual Solaris problems, and I probably don't know the
    answer either :-). Many experienced and knowledgeable people read the
    newsgroup. Post your question there. However, answers, corrections,
    and comments should be directed to me.

    No FAQ is the work of one person, but is a USENET community effort.
    This material was "snarfed" from other FAQs, USENET newsgroup
    postings, mailing lists, and personal knowledge. Generally the source
    is noted at the end of each question. Most answers have been reworded,
    or expanded, or updated. Thanks to everyone who contributed directly
    or indirectly. Please send any corrections or additions to me.

    Copyright © 1997 - 2003 Dan Anderson. All rights reserved. Tous droits
    réservés.

    This faq may be freely redistributed in its entirety provided that
    this copyright notice is preserved. Permission is expressly granted
    for this doent to be made available for file transfer from
    installations offering unrestricted anonymous file transfer on the
    Internet.

    This faq is provided "as is" in the hope that it will be useful, but
    WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law; without even the
    implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
    PURPOSE. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR
    ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
    DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE
    GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS
    INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER
    IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR
    OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF
    ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

    Sun, the Sun logo, Sun Microsystems, SunSoft, the SunSoft logo, Java,
    Solaris, SunOS, and NFS are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun
    Microsystems., Inc. SPARC is a registered trademark of SPARC
    International, Inc. in the United States and other countries. Products
    bearing the SPARC trademarks are based on an architecture developed by
    Sun Microsystems, Inc. Adobe and PostScript are registered trademarks
    of Adobe Systems Incorporated. HP is a trademark of Hewlett-Packard
    Company. IBM is a registered trademark of International Business
    Machines Corporation. Intel and Pentium are registered trademarks of
    Intel Corporation. Pentium® II Xeon is a trademark of Intel
    Corporation. Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds.
    Microsoft, MS, MS-DOS, MS Windows, and Windows NT are registered
    trademarks of Microsoft Corp. Netscape is a trademark of Netscape
    Communications Corp. Netscape® Communicator is a trademark of Netscape
    Communications Corp. Open Source is a registered certification mark of
    Open Source Initiative. UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open
    Group. All other product names mentioned herein are the trademarks of
    their respective owners.

    -Dan Anderson https://dan.drydog.com/comment.html
    alt.solaris.x86 FAQ Maintainer
    San Diego, California, USA

    Copyright © 1997 - 2002 Dan Anderson. All rights reserved.
    http://sun.drydog.com/faq/
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (3.0) RESOURCES (3.1) What web and FTP sites do I need to know about?

    http://sun.drydog.com/faq/
    The latest version of this FAQ is always at this URL. It's
    available in text and HTML formats. This FAQ also appears in
    the alt.solaris.x86 or comp.unix.solaris newsgroups
    and on various FAQ archives. Check the date at the top of this
    FAQ to make sure you have a recent version. If you don't have
    USENET news access, you can search past postings and post your
    own messages at http://groups.google.com/

    http://www.Sun.COM/intel/
    Sun's web site for Solaris on Intel, contains pointers to
    Solaris Intel product information, updates, resources, news,
    etc.

    http://developers.Sun.COM/
    Sun's Software Support and Education website. Has Solaris
    knowledge base, Hardware Compatibility List (HCL), device
    drivers, patches, and Device Configuration Assistant (DCA) boot
    diskette images. This website requires (free) registration to
    use. Links to drivers for Solaris x86 are at
    http://www.sun.com/io_technologies/solaris-drivers.html

    http://access1.Sun.COM/ site.
    Sun's download website for patches and various technical
    doents. Maintenance updates (MUs) are at
    http://access1.Sun.COM/Products/solaris/mu/ (Registration
    (free) required for MUs). Public patches (and patch clusters)
    are at http://access1.Sun.COM/patch.public/ Their Solaris
    x86 FAQ is at
    http://access1.sun.com/FAQSets/Solarisx86FAQs.html

    http://docs.Sun.COM/
    Sun doentation on-line. Includes manuals, guides,
    answerbooks, and man pages in HTML format. Especially useful
    for configuring new hardware and new systems is the Information
    Library for Solaris (Intel Platform Edition).

    http://sun.drydog.com/bookstore/
    My Solaris online bookstore, in association with Amazon.com,
    where you can read reviews on selected Solaris books and order
    Solaris or other books.

    http://www.stokely.com/unix.sysadm.resources/faqs.sun.html#s86.fa
    qs.link
    Stokely Consulting's list of FAQs has lots of pointers
    resources, not only for Solaris x86, but UNIX System
    Administration in general.

    http://sunfreeware.com/
    S. Christensen's Solaris Freeware Page. Pointers to LOTS of x86
    pre-packaged GNU and other open-source software.

    http://home1.swipnet.se/~w-10694/helpers.html
    Pointers to many Solaris viewers, players, and Netscape
    plug-ins. Includes sample media files.

    http://solaris-x86.org/
    A new site with tutorials and news on Solaris x86.

    http://www.laxmi.net/cde.htm
    CDE (Common Desktop Environment) FAQ

    http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/packages/solaris/i86pc/
    Selected Solaris Intel/x86 binaries conveniently packaged in
    pkgadd format at the University of North Carolina (formerly
    Sunsite).

    ftp://x86.cs.duke.edu/pub/solaris-x86/bins/index.html
    Joe Shamblin's annotated collection of Solaris x86 open source,
    with pointers to doentation, make it good for open source
    browsing. This site appears to be dormant (last updated circa
    1998).

    http://sun.drydog.com/
    My Solaris Intel Webpage has includes a search engine that
    indexes selected websites containing Solaris Intel information,
    including those listed here. Also contains the latest version
    of this FAQ and my online bookstore (in association with
    Amazon.com).

    http://www.sun.com/bigadmin/features/articles/x86_desktop.html
    Good overview on installing Solaris/x86 for your desktop
    workstation, including frequently-used add-ons such as
    OpenOffice. Lots of good pointers. Article published 2003.

    http://www.wins.uva.nl/pub/solaris/solaris2/
    Last, but not least, Casper Dik's thorough FAQ on Solaris 2.
    This entire FAQ is available as one file at:
    http://www.wins.uva.nl/pub/solaris/solaris2.html
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (3.2) How do I subscribe to the Solaris/x86 mailing list?

    Subscribe by sending an e-mail message to
    <com> or visit the eGroups'
    Solaris on Intel web page at
    http://www.groups./group/solarisonintel/ You DON'T have
    to register to join the list, but you do have to register to read the
    list archives on the web (sorted by thread and date).

    Sun maintains a similar "Solaris on Intel" discussion forum. To access
    it, go to http://forum.sun.com/ and select "Solaris on Intel".
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (3.3) Where can I obtain Solaris 2/x86 maintenance updates?

    Starting with Solaris 7, Sun includes the drivers in the Maintenance
    Updates (MUs) and updated versions of the OS. These are available at
    http://access1.Sun.COM/Products/solaris/mu/ (free access, but you
    must register with "solregis" or at http://developers.Sun.COM/ if
    you didn't during your Solaris install)

    Older Solaris 6 and earlier driver updates (DUs) are at
    http://developers.sun.com/prodtech/solaris/

    [Thanks to Alan Coopersmith]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (3.4) Where can I obtain Solaris 2/x86 patches?

    The Solaris x86 driver updates can be obtained by HTTP from:
    ftp://sunsolve.Sun.COM/

    A listing sorted by release is available by clicking on "Patches" at
    the SunSolve web page, http://sunsolve.Sun.COM/

    Pointers to patches, including one huge *_x86_Recommended.tar.Z file
    for each release. This directory is publicly accessible--it doesn't
    require you to be a contract customer. Patches are also available
    locally at many SunSites.

    The "showrev -p" command shows what patches you have installed.

    All files replaced by a patch are saved under /var/sadm/patch/ or
    /var/sadm/pkg/
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (3.5) How can I obtain freeware, shareware, and GNU software on a
    CD-ROM?

    Solaris 8 comes with some GNU utilities, such as gzip and less. More
    binary packages for GNU and other Open Source software are in a
    separate CD. The CD is installed after Solaris is installed. The
    packages on the CD all start with "SFW" (SFW stands for "Sun
    Freeware").

    For older versions of Solaris, Micromata of Kassel, Germany offers its
    "Summertime" CD with precompiled software for Solaris SPARC and Intel,
    http://www.micromata.com/summertime/

    See question 3.1 above for FTP and web software sites.
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (3.6) What UNIX-like operating systems are available on x86?

    * Solaris x86, SVR4-based (http://www.Sun.COM/)
    * Interactive UNIX, SVR3.2-based
    (http://www.Sun.COM/software/ius/)
    * SCO OpenServer UNIX, SVR3.2-based (http://www.sco.com/)
    * SCO UNIXWare, SVR4-based (http://www.sco.com/)
    * BSD/OS (http://www.bsdi.com/)

    * Linux (http://www.linuxresources.com/, open source)
    * FreeBSD (http://www.freebsd.org/, open source)
    * NetBSD (http://www.netbsd.org/, open source)
    * OpenBSD (http://www.openbsd.org/, open source)

    Note that the open source versions can also be purchased on CD-ROM,
    which is a convenient way to get it. For Linux, there are multiple
    vendors selling CD-ROMs (e.g., RedHat, http://www.redhat.com/).
    Other systems are over the horizon, in beta, or for teaching/research.
    E.g., GNU's HURD http://www.gnu.ai.mit.edu/software/hurd/,
    Tanenbaum's Minix http://www.cs.vu.nl/~ast/minix.html, or
    Lucent/Bell Labs' Plan 9, http://plan9.bell-labs.com/
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (3.7) What books are available on Solaris x86?

    For Unix system administration in general, I like Unix System
    Administration Handbook, 3d ed. by Evi Nemeth, Garth Snyder, Scott
    Seebass, and Trent R. Hein (Prentice Hall, 1995), ISBN 0-13-020601-7
    http://sun.drydog.com/bookstore/#0131510517

    Ron Ledesma has written PC Hardware Configuration Guide for DOS
    and Solaris (SunSoft Press, 1994), ISBN 0-13-124678-X,
    http://sun.drydog.com/bookstore/#013124678x. It's a well-written,
    but dated, book on setting up Solaris x86 on Intel Architecture.

    There's also Solaris 2.X for Managers and Administrators by Curt
    Freeland, Dwight McKay, Kent Parkinson, 2d ed. (1997), ISBN:
    1-56690-150-2, http://sun.drydog.com/bookstore/#1566901502

    The following two books by Janice Winsor cover Solaris 2.6 for SPARC
    and x86. They are from Sun Microsystems/Macmillan Technical
    Publishing. I find they cover the subject matter too lightly, but they
    may be good for beginners: Solaris System Administrator's Guide,
    2d ed. (1998), ISBN 1-57870-040-X,
    http://sun.drydog.com/bookstore/#157870040x, and Solaris
    Advanced System Administrator's Guide, 2d ed., ISBN 1-57870-039-6,
    http://sun.drydog.com/bookstore/#1578700396,

    Other books are available on Solaris in general from SunSoft Books and
    on UNIX (with sections on Solaris) from O'Reilly and Associates.
    Hardcopies of Sun manuals are available as SunDocs from SunExpress.

    <BLATANT COMMERCIAL>
    Please visit my on-line bookstore,
    http://sun.drydog.com/bookstore/, in association with Amazon.com,
    where you can order books on Solaris or any other topic. I get paid a
    few percent of most books ordered there.
    <END BLATANT COMMERCIAL>
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (3.8) What magazine articles are available on Solaris x86?

    "Sun injects Solaris X86 with new life as it makes its way to 64 bits"
    Sun World. Feb. 1997 by Rick Cook.
    http://www.Sun.COM/sunworldonline/swol-02-1997/swol-02-solarisX86
    ..html

    Note: please send other submissions to Dan Anderson at
    https://dan.drydog.com/comment.html
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (3.9) What's new for Solaris 9?

    Solaris 9 has just been released for SPARC (5/2002), and will be
    releated for Intel 1/2003. An Early Access ("beta") version is now
    available for download. Solaris 9 adds ssh, IPSec with IKE key
    exchange, /dev/[u]random (RNG), secure LDAP, improved thread
    performance, several Open Source software updates, and new system
    administrator tools. Details are at
    http://www.sun.com/software/solaris/

    Update (1/2003): Solaris 9 x86 is available at
    http://wwws.sun.com/software/solaris/binaries/get.html?biga=m2
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (3.10) What's new for the future Solaris?

    Who knows. Here's some high-level (vague) quotes. From InfoWorld
    (8/2/2002), ComputerWorld (8/6/2002), and OSNews (12/3/2002): ". . .
    minimization of total cost of ownership," said Bill Moffitt, Sun
    product line manager. It will have better performance, managability,
    and scalability, allowing easier deployment of large number of systems
    without more personnel. Solaris will also have reliability and
    security improvements.

    From eWeek (10/3/2002): John Loiacono, VP of the operating platforms
    group at Sun says: "There are five or six substantial areas around
    availability, security and file system functionality that will be an
    absolute breakthrough. [Solaris will take ] . . . the container
    concept in Solaris 9 further and delivers a complete solution in that
    space around availability. We'll see things in the file system area
    that are phenomenal breakthroughs."

    From OSNews (12/3/202): John Fowler, Sun CTO says "Gnome 2 will
    replace CDE".

    Copyright © 1997 - 2003 Dan Anderson. All rights reserved.
    http://sun.drydog.com/faq/
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (4.0) PRE-INSTALLATION

    (4.1) What information should I have before an install?

    * Size of your disk
    * Ethernet hardware address
    * IP address
    * Bandwidth of your video card and monitor
    * Maximum vertical frequency your video card will drive
    * Mouse type

    The size of your disk determines what cluster you are going to install
    on your system. I.e., an End User cluster, a Developers Cluster or the
    Complete Cluster. See references to how to size your OS when
    installing.

    The Ethernet hardware address from your Ethernet card would be helpful
    if you're on a NIS net and your going to do net installs. You would
    like to have the Ethernet address in the /etc/ethers map file before
    you do an install. Usually the manufacturer of an Ethernet card will
    have some software that you can run under DOS to display this number
    or sometimes you can find the Ethernet number on a sticker right on
    the Ethernet card. If this is on a standalone network you probably
    don't need to know the Ethernet hardware address. Don't confuse this
    with the software IP address.

    Bandwidth of your monitor and video card are important. During the
    install the install process is going to ask you for the size of your
    monitor and what vertical resolution you want to drive the monitor at.
    Note that in the update disk doentation they give a handy dandy
    monitor resolution bandwidth for monitors in the appendix. You may
    want to check this out. See other references on video cards and
    monitors throughout the FAQ.

    The install process will ask you about your mouse type.

    [From Bob Palowoda's Solaris 2.4 x86 FAQ]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (4.2) What hardware is supported by Solaris 2.x for Intel?

    Solaris x86 is the version that runs on Intel-based PCs and servers.
    Requirements vary to release, but generally a 80486 processor or
    better is required with an ISA or PCI bus, 16 MB of memory, and
    200-500 MB Disk. Many multi-processor boards are supported. You must
    have a CD-ROM drive or access to NFS over the network to install and a
    1.44 MB floppy disk drive.

    The Solaris x86 Hardware Compatibility List (HCL) lists the tested
    hardware. However, not all hardware combinations will work. Also,
    hardware not listed may work, but are not guaranteed or supported. The
    HCL is at: http://www.sun.com/bigadmin/hcl/

    For troublesome devices and cards, I find Solaris 7 (Intel
    Platform Edition) Device Configuration Guide at
    http://docs.Sun.COM/ab2/coll.214.4/HWCONFIG/Ab2TocView? very useful.
    (if the link changed, go to http://docs.Sun.COM, click on
    "Installation & Setup," then "Installation Collection," then "Device
    Config. Guide." You'll also find the HCL and other guides.

    [Updated from Casper Dik's Solaris 2 FAQ]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (4.3) What size disks and partitions should I have?

    If you install all of Solaris, with no AnswerBook2 on disk, you
    typically need to have 1 GB plus space for optional software and data
    and log files. This can be pared down (e.g., by not installing Asian
    fonts), but with today's large disks, I usually install all of
    Solaris.

    Solaris uses a tmpfs where both the swap area and /tmp share a common
    disk space. Configure about 200 MB of swap space on a single user
    system. Many programs use the tmpfs for speeding up applications. My
    swap file is usually 1.5 times my physical memory.

    Solaris installation usually suggests several filesystems. However,
    for workstations, I recommend a simple layout with just two slices in
    the Solaris partition: root (/) and swap (/tmp). and everything else
    goes in the root (/) filesystem. If you're expecting a lot of overflow
    from /var (usually on servers), consider creating a separate /var
    filesystem (say 200 MB or more, depending on your needs).

    During installation, you will be asked to select the boot disk to use.
    Next, you will be asked if you want to "Preserve Data?" Answer "yes"
    if you have unused disk space and want to keep your existing operating
    system (e.g., Linux or Windows). Answer "no" if you want remove all
    existing partitions on the disk and use the all or part of the disk
    for Solaris.

    If you are installing Solaris on a disk with Linux, be especially
    careful not to use the Linux swap partition for Solaris if installing
    Solaris or vice versa installing Linux. They bo th use the same
    partition ID, 0x82. For more information, see the question later in
    this FAQ, Can I install Linux and Solaris on the same drive?
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (4.4) What are SCSI IDs expected by Solaris x86?

    These are the typical values for SCSI devices. For tape and CD-ROM,
    these are the defaults used in the /etc/vold.conf file for controlling
    the vold mounter. You can set them to other ID's but remember to
    adjust the vold.conf file to the new values.

    Boot drive ID 0
    Second drive ID 1
    Third drive ID 2
    Reserved by Solaris ID 3
    Tape ID 4
    CDROM ID 6
    SCSI controller ID 7

    [From Bob Palowoda's Solaris 2.4 x86 FAQ]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (4.5) What video card/monitor combination works best?

    Some questions will arise when trying to configure your video card and
    monitor size. The most critical area is when you do the install and
    answer the questions about the vertical HZ, screen size 14, 15, 17,
    21-inch, etc. If you get it wrong you get the squiggles.

    First, find your video card manual. Ha! I can hear the laughs from
    across the world. What manual? If this is the case just select the
    slowest vertical HZ. You can always change it later after the system
    is up with kdmconfig.

    Resolution: be safe and just use 1024x768 or smaller the first time
    through the install. Latter, boost it up to 16 million colors and
    specify a bigger monitor size.

    Screen size should be easy. Measure diagonally: [\] about that big.

    If you don't know the video card type just select the standard vga8 to
    do the install. Hopefully when your system boots it displays what
    video card you have in it.

    A good video card combination such as the ATI and Sony 17sei can allow
    you to drive it at 76Hz vertical 1280x1024 on a 17-inch screen.

    Hint: Look in the update readme files and at the end in one of the
    appendices you'll find a chart of monitors and their scan rates. It's
    usually good to refer to before you buy the monitor and video card
    combination. You could have a very nice high bandwidth monitor and a
    lousy video card that can't drive it hard enough. Or visa versa, a
    good video card that can drive a high bandwidth but the monitor just
    can't handle it.

    Another Hint: Even though there's no 14-inch monitor on the
    configuration menu you can select the 15-inch setting. If the 14-inch
    monitor has a good bandwidth it will sync up.

    [Modified from Bob Palowoda's Solaris 2.4 x86 FAQ]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (4.6) Is Plug-and-Play (PNP) supported by Solaris/x86?

    Yes, with release 2.6 and latter. Solaris 2.5.1 and earlier (even with
    the DUs), do NOT support PNP. PNP should be disabled and the card
    manually configured for the latter case. Sun FAQ 2234-02 at
    http://access1.Sun.COM/cgi-bin/rinfo2html?223402.faq has
    instructions for configuring Solaris to recognize specific PNP
    devices. See the Solaris 7 (Intel Platform Edition) Device
    Configuration Guide (mentioned above) for details on each device (and
    see the Driver Update Guide when using updates).

    Personally, I find it a lot easier to disable PNP on cards that have
    that option. Boot into DOS or Windows (with a diskette if you have to)
    and run your card manufacturer's utility or configuration or
    diagnostic program. I also disable the BIOS setting "OS supports PNP".
    PNP can be tricky with Solaris sometimes.

    To display your current system configuration run "prtconf -pv"
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (4.7) Is Advanced Power Management (APM) supported by Solaris/x86?

    APM isn't really supported on x86. Solaris is "APM tolerant" which
    means that if APM can do everything transparently to Solaris, it will
    work. If it isn't transparent, Solaris gets confused.

    So, SPARC has power management in the OS but x86 does not.

    [Thanks to Doug McCallum]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (4.8) Are "floppy tape" devices supported by Solaris x86?

    No. You have to use a SCSI tape backup device. Other options include
    purchasing a zip drive, which is supported (except on the parallel
    port), or backing-up your files to a MS-DOS/MS Windows partition and
    back it up from MS DOS/MS Windows or some other operating system.
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (4.9) How can I get a "free" copy of Solaris?

    A "free" copy of Solaris (where "free" means the license is free--you
    pay only media, shipping, and handling cost), is available from
    http://wwws.sun.com/software/solaris/binaries/ For Solaris 9, the
    cost is US $95 for the media kit (CDROMs) or US $20 to download. For
    Solaris 8, the cost is US $45 for the media kit or US $20 to download

    The download version includes everything but the Open Source "Software
    Companion" CD, and the StarOffice CD (the latter is available for
    download separately though).

    If you download and have problems, make sure you download in "binary"
    mode (check that the file size matches exactly). Some CD burning
    software (especially for Windoze) requires the downloaded files be
    renamed to have a ".iso" extension. I recommend using "Easy CD
    Creator" software if you are using Windows machines (see
    http://www.roxio.com/ ). Some people like Nero Burning ROM
    software, but I have no experience with it.

    For Solaris and other flavors of UNIX, several CD burning utilities
    are available, such as cdrecord (CLI) at
    ftp://ftp.fokus.gmd.de/pub/unix/cdrecord/, BurnIt (Java GUI front
    end to cdrecord) at http://sunsite.dk/BurnIT/, or X-CD-Roast
    (Linux GUI) at http://www.xcdroast.org/
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (4.10) What's missing from the "free" copy of Solaris that's in the
    commercial version?

    The following CD is supplied with the commercial version but not with
    the free version: Software Supplement for Solaris 7. The latter
    contains SunVTS, ODBC Driver Manager, Solaris on Sun Hardware
    AnswerBook, PC file viewer, ShowMe, and SunFDDI. OpenGL is provided
    with Solaris only for the commercial Sparc version (Xi Graphics
    "Summit" software supports OpenGL 1.2.1 for Solaris x86; XFree86 has
    OpenGL but doesn't support it for Solaris).

    [Thanks to Mike Mann and Alan Coopersmith]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (4.11) How do you create a Device Configuration Assistant (DCA)
    Diskette in DOS/Windows?

    The DCA diskette is used for booting, in lieu of booting from CDROM or
    hard disk. The DCA diskette comes with the Solaris media, but you need
    to "roll your own" if you downloaded Solaris or if your DCA diskette
    becomes corrupted. To create the diskette, follow these steps:

    1. Download DOS program dd.exe, which is used to write the DCA image,
    from http://www.sun.com/bigadmin/hcl/drivers/dca_diskettes/
    or ftp://ftp.uu.net/vendor/sun/solaris/x86/dd.exe (Example:
    dd S8_1001.3 a:) You can also use the DOS rawrite.exe utility
    provided with Linux distributions (usually under the boot diskette
    directory).
    2. Download the DCA diskette image for the Solaris x86 version that
    you want to install (for example, S8_0101.3) from
    http://www.sun.com/bigadmin/hcl/drivers/dca_diskettes/) A DCA
    boot floppy image is also on the "Software 2 of 2" CD, in the
    Solaris_9/Tools subdirectory.
    3. Run dd.exe to copy the image to the floppy diskette: dd.exe
    <filename> a:

    You have now created a (bootable) Solaris DCA diskette.

    [Thanks to Sean G.W. Graham]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (4.12) How can I get Solaris to see the third ATAPI controller?

    Solaris 7 can be configured to support any ATAPI compliant controller
    which doesn't conflict with any existing device. The key factor is
    that its interfaces must be complaint with the ATAPI specs. In other
    words, you need two ranges of non-conflicting I/O ports, and an free
    IRQ, and hardware that's compliant with at least the ATA-2 and
    SFF-8020 specs. If it's a legacy-ISA ATA controller than you'll have
    to manually configure everything via the Device Configuration
    Assistant (DCA) menus because the DCA only automatically probes for
    ISA-IDE devices at the two standard address ranges. If you're adding a
    compliant PnP-ISA ATAPI controller or a compliant PCI-IDE controller
    then the DCA should automatically configure everything for you because
    all PnP-ISA-IDE and PCI-IDE devices are self-identifying devices.

    The problem you're likely to encounter is there aren't many compliant
    add-in ATAPI controllers available. Most of them want to do revolting
    things like share ISA IRQs 14 or 15, or advertise the wrong range of
    I/O ports or don't specify the right PCI-IDE class bytes. In
    particular most SoundBlaster-IDE cards have a broken Alternate-Status
    register. The Solaris 7 ata driver assumes that the Alternate-Status
    register works as specified in the ATA-2 spec. Unlike the other
    non-compliant hardware problems, there's a trivial workaround for the
    SB-IDE hardware bug (i.e., don't use the Alt-Status register) but I've
    no idea whether anyone at Sun has spent the 15 minutes it would take
    to apply the fix to Solaris 8.

    If you've got an add-in ATAPI controller card that doesn't come with
    specs that clearly spell out that it won't conflict with your existing
    controllers, or if it requires you to disable any built-in
    controllers, then that's almost certainly one of those bogus
    controllers that isn't fully compliant with the ATAPI specs. I haven't
    yet found a legacy-ISA ATAPI card that works correctly (they all want
    seem to want to share IRQ 14 or 15), but people persist in telling me
    they exist. If you do find a compliant one then the Solaris 7 ata
    driver will work with it just fine.

    [Save yourself some trouble and use a SCSI controller and disks. -
    ed.]

    [Thanks to Bruce Adler]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (4.13) Are Ultra DMA (UDMA) drives supported?

    I understand Solaris 7 recognizes UDMA drives in native mode. They are
    not supported in Solaris 2.6 or older, although they are recognized in
    its compatibility mode as regular ATAPI drives.

    During installation, you may want to disable UDMA mode if your install
    hangs during recognition of hard drives (which occurs shortly after
    the Solaris copyright line is displayed).

    For Solaris 8, DMA is disabled for ATAPI devices, as it caused
    installs to fail for several BIOSes. It can be enabled with the
    "ata-dma-enabled" property from the Device Configuration Assistant.
    See the question on "How can I improve disk and graphic performance?"
    for details.

    [Thanks to Christopher Arnold and Steve]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (4.14) Are Universal Serial Bus (USB) devices supported?

    Solaris 8 supports USB. However, not all devices attached to USB are
    supported. The HCL lists supported devices (see the answer about the
    HCL, above).

    Also, there are three different types of USB host controllers, and
    Solaris x86 (8 or 9) supports only one:
    * USB 1.1 UHCI is supported by Solaris x86, but not Solaris SPARC.
    * USB 1.1 OHCI: not supported by Solaris x86, supported by Solaris
    SPARC (with the Solaris USB DDK v0.8a).
    * USB 2.0 EHCI is not supported by Solaris. It might be supported in
    Solaris 10. On Solaris 8 SPARC, install patch 109896-19.

    Run the command "prtconf -pv | grep 000c03". If there's no output from
    that command, your machine dosn't have USB :-(. If there's a
    "class-code: 000c0300" line, you have UHCI USB and it should be
    possible to use USB devices under Solaris x86. If there's a
    "class-code: 000c0310" line you have an OHCI USB controller, which is
    not supported with Solaris 8/9 x86. And "class-code: 000c0320" is an
    EHCI (USB v2) controller.

    So, if your USB controller is UHCI, your USB keyboard/mouse should be
    detected and should be usable as USB devices under Solaris x/9 x86. If
    your system has an OHCI usb controller, you cannot use USB under
    Solaris x86. Your only option is to enable "USB legacy support" for
    the keyboard and mouse in the system's BIOS, and the BIOS will emulate
    a PS/2 keyboard and PS/2 mouse from the USB peripherals. In kdmconfig
    you have to tell the system to use the (emulated) PS/2 mouse; the USB
    mouse pointer entry won't work!
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (4.15) Is Microsoft Intellimouse or other scrolling mice supported?

    Partly (with native XSun). Configure it as a 3-button PS/2 mouse. The
    wheel won't scroll anything, but pressing the wheel down is the same
    as pressing the middle button. The same holds true for Logitech's
    MouseMan Wheel mice.

    Update: I understand the new version 1.2 of Intellimouse does not work
    with Solaris's XSun. However, XFree86 and Xi Graphics X Windows
    graphics card server software do support wheel mice [Thanks to Alan
    Orndorff].
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (4.16) What's difference between Solaris x86 Server and Solaris x86
    Desktop?

    There is absolutely no difference, other than what you are licensed to
    do with it. You get exactly the same software with the two products.
    (This is not the case with Sparc server, where the server product
    contains more CDs with some additional software. If you want something
    like Solstice AdminSuite, you have to order it separately.

    The Solaris desktop license restricts you from using the system as
    "any type of server" (other than print or NIS). or supporting more
    than two continuous users. Read your license for details. A Server
    Upgrade License is available.

    [Thanks to Andrew Gabriel]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (4.17) Solaris doesn't recognize all of my large (>40GB) ATAPI. For
    example, a 60GB disk shows up as only 28GB.

    Apply patch 110202-01 from http://SunSolve.Sun.COM/ which fixes
    bug4353406 for Solaris 8. For Solaris 7, you can modify a patch by
    creating a directory called SOL_27 and duplicate the files and
    directories contained in SOL_28.

    [Thanks to EB]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (4.18) Is Solaris Intel 64-bit aware?

    No. Due to the underlying Intel chip architecture, Solaris Intel is 32
    bit. However, starting with 2.6, Solaris (x86 and SPARC) supports
    large (> 2 Gigabytes) files up to 1 Terrabyte. In practice, the limit
    is 860 Gigabytes. For example:
    $ ls -l /work/BackUp
    total 13239792
    -rw-r--r-- 1 root other 6775454208 Dec 11 00:47 csdb_nfs1.tar

    [Thanks to Niklas Zackrisson and Alexander Zinkov]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (4.19) What's the difference between partitions and slices?

    In the UNIX world, partitions and slices are often used
    interchangeably. In the x86 world, partitions usually refer to fdisk
    partitions. To avoid confusion, it's preferable to refer to
    "partitions" as "fdisk partitions." (e.g., you can only have four
    primary fdisk partitions in a x86 fdisk table.) In the Solaris x86
    world, the term "slice" should be used to refer to slices which are
    within the Solaris fdisk partition (e.g., "root" (/) and "swap"
    slices.)

    [Thanks to John Groenveld]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (4.20) I already used the 4 primary fdisk partition table entries. Can
    I create a partition for Solaris within my extended partition?

    You can't because Solaris requires a *primary* partition table entry
    in the fdisk table and doesn't support placing the Solaris Partition
    within a DOS Extended Partition.

    [Thanks to Bruce Adler] (4.21) What are the IRQ assignments?

    IRQs, Interrupt Request Registers, numbered 0 to 15, handle interrupts
    from various internal and external hardware devices. Multiple ISA
    devices can't share a IRQ, but multiple PCI devices can share.

    Here's a chart:

    * IRQ 0* - System Timer
    * IRQ 1* - Keyboard
    * IRQ 2* - Programmable Interrupt Controller; gateway to IRQs 9 -
    15.
    * IRQ 3 - COM2 (ttyb) I/O Base 2F8h (usually a ISA modem)
    * IRQ 4 - COM1 (ttya) I/O Base 3F8h (usually a serial mouse)
    * IRQ 5 - Usually a secondary printer, NIC, or sound card
    * IRQ 6 - Diskette Controller
    * IRQ 7 - Parallel Printer; sometimes used for a sound card
    * IRQ 8* - CMOS Real-Time Clock
    * IRQ 9 - Sometimes used for a sound or network card
    * IRQ 10 -
    * IRQ 11 - Sometimes used for PCI Video
    * IRQ 12 - PS/2-style Mouse
    * IRQ 13* - Math Coprocessor Exception
    * IRQ 14 - Primary ATAPI Disk controller
    * IRQ 15 - Secondary ATAPI Disk controller

    *IRQs 0, 1, 2, 8, and 13 are not on the bus connectors and are not
    available to I/O adapter cards.

    [Thanks to Jorgen Moquist and other sources] (4.22) Are Laptops
    supported for Solaris x86?

    No, not anymore. There's just too many and they tend to have strange
    hardware. That being said, many happen to work. Also, old drivers or
    desktop drivers sometimes function for laptop hardware. For a list of
    known laptops compatible with Solaris x86, see Philip Brown's "Solaris
    Intel Laptop List" at
    http://www.bolthole.com/solaris/x86-laptops.html

    If you want more than VGA resolution, you can try installing XFree86.
    See section 8 of the faq on X Windows for more information.
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    Copyright © 1997 - 2003 Dan Anderson. All rights reserved.
    http://sun.drydog.com/faq/
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (5.0) INSTALLATION

    (5.1) How long does the install take?

    It depends on the CD-ROM and hard disk speed. On a 300 MHz Pentium
    with a multispeed SCSI CDROM, from the time "Initial Install" starts,
    it only takes about a half hour. Add another half hour for initial
    probes and configuration menus. Add a lot more if you have problems,
    of course. Upgrades take about 3 hours or more. This is because the
    system must determine what critical configuration data must be saved
    and replace it on a "per-package basis".

    I'm the impatient type and given up totally on system upgrades. Now I
    have a separate disk drive which I use for initial installs because it
    goes so much faster. With the typical SCSI drives costing in the $200
    range it just isn't worth it anymore to do upgrades. But this is my
    opinion so take it for what it is worth. I just save the /etc, /opt,
    /local, and /export/home directories and selectively restore rather
    than upgrade.

    Below is typically what I save before doing an initial upgrade. Don't
    take this for the ultimate system definition of what you should save,
    but it works for my system. Your system may be designed very
    differently. The first thing I do is mount the filesystem that has a
    home directory with the below critical files and copy them to the
    appropriate directories. I'm sure it could be automated but. . . What
    the advantage of this process is that I can do an initial install in
    about an hour. My home directories are always on another disk
    partition.

    Install_Notes My own release notes
    defaultroute If you have one for routing to a DNS server.
    df Save the output of df to keep an idea of my disk usage
    dfstab /etc/dfs/dfstab for shared file systems
    passwd /etc/passwd file
    shadow /etc/shadow file
    vfstab /etc/vfstab filesystems

    [Modified from Bob Palowoda's Solaris 2.4 x86 FAQ]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (5.2) My ATAPI CD-ROM isn't recognized during install by Solaris' FCS
    MCB and it's not in the HCL. What can I do?

    With at least older versions of Solaris (2.5.1 or before), you may
    have problems with ATAPI CD-ROMs either faster than 8x speed,
    connected to the secondary ATAPI, or connected to a sound card. I hear
    reports from multiple people, however, that this problem has gone away
    with Solaris 2.6. I understand the problem is related to the CMD640
    ATAPI chipset. Consider disabling DMA for the CD-ROM. I find SCSI
    CD-ROMS are always a safe bet, as are CD-ROMS listed on the HCL.

    [Thanks to L. E. "MadHat" Heath and others]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (5.3) What kind of problems might I encounter installing my SCSI
    system?

    Typical problems with SCSI drives are termination and SCSI IDs. You'll
    have flakey behavior if there's no termination resistor on the drive
    at the end of a SCSI "chain". Worse are double termination resistors.
    Some people mistakenly leave a resistor jumper on a drive when it's
    not at the end of a SCSI "chain." This also makes the system flakey.
    Carefully read your SCSI adapter manual on termination if you're
    unsure about it. A SCSI drive can run for hours with no problems--then
    boom, you get a panic. Always check cabling, pins, and connections and
    use the *shortest* cable possible. The first thing I do when I have a
    problem with a SCSI device is to reseat the SCSI cables (with the
    machine powered off).

    With SCSI IDs, a common problem is that the IDs on the drive, usually
    set with dip switches or a button, don't match the settings with your
    software (Solaris) or it's a duplicate ID. Check the IDs carefully
    when adding or upgrading SCSI devices. The boot drive must be ID 0.

    Other more obscure problems are setting the BIOS address space for the
    disk controller the same as the network card address space, and the
    PCI video card address conflicting with PCI SCSI disk controller BIOS
    address space. SCSI ISA adapter support has been removed in Solaris
    8--use PCI.

    [Adapted from Bob Palowoda's Solaris 2.4 x86 FAQ]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (5.4) What do I do when the install hangs/panics?

    One of the most common problems with some mother boards is handling
    DMA during the install. Usually, that's the case if you get a hang
    right around configuring /dev/devices. Try turning off the
    caching--external and internal. Slow the system speed down if it
    allows you to do this in the BIOS or through the front panel switch.
    Leave these settings ONLY for the install: kick it back up after the
    install.

    Warning: If you already have a OS installed on your hard drive (and
    that's most of you), the Webstart "Installation" disk will most likely
    not work. Use the "Software 1 of 2" CD, which is also a bootable CD.

    Another common problem is support for new devices. Use the latest
    driver update boot and distribution diskettes, especially with
    newly-supported hardware. Carefully check the HCL to verify your cards
    are listed. Try removing/replacing suspected troublesome cards to
    isolate the problem.

    Sun gives these tips for handling hardware incompatibilities during
    installation (see
    http://access1.Sun.COM/cgi-bin/rinfo2html?115502.faq ):

    ". . . Disable external cache, . disable synchronous negotiation on
    the CD ROM, and disable ROM BIOS shadowing. These may be re-enabled
    after installation. Also, if using an un-supported or clone
    motherboard, slowing the system clock or changing from a double-
    clocked processor to a single-clocked one may help. Say, for
    example, a 486DX-50 as opposed to a 486-250 or 486-66."

    I would also add (temporary) disabling of these BIOS settings to this
    list: video cache, BIOS virus detection (boot block writes), "OS
    supports PnP", and UDMA mode. Disabling these settings may not be
    required for your hardware and BIOS, but it has helped for some
    hardware setups. Remember to reenable these after you installed
    Solaris.

    Here's a checklist of typical causes of hangs during installation:
    * Incompatible CD-ROM drives (or mounting on the secondary ATAPI).
    * Incompatible SCSI controller (avoid the clones and cheap cards).
    * Incompatible Motherboard (try changing motherboard settings).

    The "Troubleshooting" chapter of the Solaris Advanced Installation
    Guide has many additional tips, especially for ATAPI drives and
    CDROMs. See http://docs.sun.com/

    [Parts originally from Bob Palowoda's Solaris 2.4 x86 FAQ]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (5.5) I'm trying to install Solaris/x86 on my ATAPI drive. However,
    the installation program says the root partition must end within the
    first 1023 cylinders of the disk. What can I do?

    The root filesystem must be below 1024 cylinders of your disk The
    number of cylinders has nothing to do with the size of the disk. So it
    is possible to have 1.5GB partitions below 1024 cylinders on some
    disks (with more MB per cylinder) and not on others. Newer BIOSes
    support LBA, Logical Block Addressing. The BIOS may have to be edited
    on bootup to enable the LBA option. This bumps the HD limit to 8GB.
    With LBA, Solaris/x86 and other operating systems can be placed
    anywhere you want. For older BIOSes, the 1024 cylinder limit
    translates to the first 512 MB on ATAPI.

    Be sure that the root and the boot slice of the Solaris partition are
    within the 1024 cylinder boundary using the BIOS geometry reported for
    your disk and you should be fine. That is the cause of the "slice
    extends beyond end of disk" message -- exceeding 1024 cylinders.

    If you're having problems, simply make the root filesystem smaller and
    create an additional /usr filesystem (and, e. g., /var, /opt, . . .).
    For reliability, the root filesystem should be small (say 64 MB) with
    large filesystems mounted on it.

    I have seen problems with fdisk as well. In those cases I used a disk
    editor to adjust the partition so it started and ended on cylinder
    boundaries. This seems to happen when Solaris uses the actual geometry
    of a disk, as seen by Solaris at runtime, vs. the geometry reported by
    a controller to allow DOS to think it has no more than 1024 cylinders.
    Partition Magic reported problems with that partition when I tried it
    on systems with Solaris partitions that weren't aligned with the other
    partitions correctly.

    Update: Solaris 8 has removed this size restriction for ATAPI drives.
    One must reinstall Solaris, not upgrade, to take advantage of this.
    SCSI drives have never had the partition size restriction, although
    the boot code in the root / filesystem had to be under the 1024
    cylinder limit.

    [Thanks to Ronald Kuehn and Mike Riley]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (5.6) Does Solaris x86 prefer to have the motherboard BIOS set to
    NORMAL or LBA for ATAPI disks?

    In theory, both work. Leave it up to the BIOS' auto-detect, just as
    the Configuration Guide advises.

    [Thanks to Randy J. Parker]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (5.7) Why does a Solaris install to a disk with valid, pre-existing
    fdisk partitions sometimes fail?

    There is a well known bug that sometimes prevents Solaris from
    installing into an existing partition. Its cause has never been
    identified, or its existence officially acknowledged by filling out a
    bug report. It is secretly well known only to Sun's Installation
    Support team in Chelmsford, MA., who claim that the workaround is
    apparent from the message "slice extends beyond end of disk".

    I agree that the workaround is simple, but I think some kind of
    doent explaining the workaround should be returned by searches of
    sunsolve and access1. Better yet, the error message could actually
    describe the error! Or, how about identifying and fixing the bug so it
    never happens to begin with?

    For those of you too "stupid" :-) to read the error message, I'll
    decode it:
    slice = "disk"
    extends = "is full of fdisk partitions"
    beyond = "before"
    end = "installation."
    of = "Please"
    disk = "delete at least one of 'em, and try again"

    For example: If a disk has three partitions with the following: 1)
    FAT, 2) no filesystem yet, 3) NTFS, the installation might fail in
    some poorly understood cases, with the misleading error message.

    The workaround is to delete the unused partition, leaving a "hole"
    between the flanking partitions. The install fdisk, Partition Magic,
    or any other fdisk will now see only two partitions: FAT and NTFS.
    There will obviously be lots of cylinders between the end of the
    first, and the beginning of the second. The Solaris install will spot
    the hole, and create a partition according to its own mysterious
    specifications. Somehow, this new partition is acceptable, even though
    a seemingly identical one created by a different fdisk isn't. Perhaps
    the bug is in *when* it was created: if previous, sometimes balk.
    Perhaps NORMAL / LBA is relevant at this point - - it did make a
    difference in at least one case I tested. Oddly, I have also had cases
    where the offending procedure of creating the partitions before
    beginning to install Solaris worked fine.

    However, I once had a case where the Solaris install created a
    partition that left gaps of a few cylinders before and after. I am
    wary that it could err on the other side of the boundary, and damage a
    flanking filesystem by encroaching across the pre-existing boundary.
    The safest approach when dealing with a squirrelly fdisk is to use the
    dangerous one *first*. Install Solaris before the other partitions get
    used, if possible. Hopefully the other fdisk-type programs will
    recognize such corruption and allow the encroached-upon partitions to
    be deleted and re-created, without hurting the Solaris partition.

    At any rate, the most-likely-to-succeed procedure is to install into a
    hole, or onto an empty disk with no partitions.

    Thanks to Super-User (asianinter.net), who pointed out cases involving
    modern BIOS' auto-detecting ATAPI disks as NORMAL. Alan Thomas prefers
    always to set disks to NORMAL, and once had trouble with a disk that
    was set to LBA.

    [Thanks to Randy J. Parker]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (5.8) How do I add a 8 GB or greater ATAPI drive to Solaris 7 or
    earlier?

    Solaris 8 has support for large ATAPI drives built-in. For SCSI
    drives, there's no such restriction. However, if you have Solaris 7 or
    earlier, there's an 8 GB restriction on large hard drives, even in LBA
    mode. There is a workaround for this limit however, by following these
    instructions:

    To add a drive for Solaris 7, you need a BIOS that supports drives
    greater than 8.4GB in LBA mode. Check with the computer manufacturer.
    BIOS upgrades may also be available if your system currently does not
    support large drives.

    You also need to find out the total number of sectors available on the
    drive. Solaris 7 or earlier cannot read the extended information on
    the drive, so the information will need to be obtained from the
    manufacturer. If the manufacturer only provides the total number of
    bytes, then divide that number by 512 to obtain the total number of
    sectors. NOTE: Ignore the 16383x16x63 (or whatever) listed on the
    drive -- this equates to an 8.4GB drive and is not applicable to large
    drives.

    To configure the drive:
    1. Set the drive mode to LBA in the BIOS setup.
    2. Boot Solaris.
    WARNING! Continuing will destroy any partitions that are on this
    drive.
    3. Create a disk geometry file for Solaris.
    WARNING! EXCEEDING 16383 CYLINDERS WILL LOCK-UP YOUR DISK DRIVE.
    Our formula: x * y * z = s. Where x is the number of cylinders (x
    cannot exceed (2**14) - 1 = 16383), y is the number of heads, z is
    the number of sectors per track, and s is the total number of
    sectors available on the drive. By setting y = 1, we get the
    following:
    x * 1 * z = s, or x * z = s. By further setting x = 16383, we get:
    16383 * z = s.
    Solve for z (number of sectors per track): z = s / 16383. For
    example:
    Western Digital AC 418000 (18.2GB) - Total sectors = 35,239,680.
    35,239,680 / 16383 = 2150.99 = 2150
    NOTE: All results must be rounded down. Solaris reserves three
    cylinders, so making x smaller would end up wasting space.
    Create a file called "geometry" like the following (using our
    example above) where NSECT is the value solved for z (2150):
    * Label geometry for device /dev/rdsk/c0d0p0
    * PCYL NCYL ACYL BCYL NHEAD NSECT SECSIZ
    16383 16383 2 0 1 2150 512
    4. Run fdisk in Solaris using the new geometry file:
    fdisk -S geometry -I /dev/rdsk/c1d0p0
    Replace "/dev/rdsk/c1d0p0" with your raw disk device (The trick is
    to let fdisk ignore the geometry reported by the BIOS and use the
    geometry specified in file "geometry" instead).
    5. From here on, you can format, partition, and make filesystems on
    the drive in the usual manner.

    For details see the fdisk(1M), prtvtoc(1M), and fmthard(1M) man page.

    [Thanks to Pete Howell and Juergen Marenda]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (5.9) How do I install or use the "2 of 2" installation CD?

    The "2 of 2" CD has the "man" pages and less frequently installed
    packages than the "1 of 2" CD. The "2 of 2" CD is not bootable. During
    installation, leave the "1 of 2" CD in the tray and switch the BIOS
    from CD to HD during reboot. The WebStart progress meter is inaccurate
    and can catch you unprepared if you are using auto-reboot (I recommend
    to not use the WebStart CD and install with the "1 of 2" CD). The
    ASCII progress meter, from the "1 of 2" CD is fine. After rebooting,
    if the "1 of 2" CD is in the tray then the system will eject it and
    ask for "2 of 2" CD. Otherwise use the trivial manual installation
    procedure given in the "Release Notes", the little white book that
    came with the CD's. Or use /usr/sbin/pkgadd to install individual
    packages.

    [Thanks to Paul Kargianis]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (5.10) How do I install or use the doentation CD?

    The AnswerBook doentation CD that comes with Solaris is is very
    useful. To use it with Solaris 8, you have to run the Answer Book 2
    Server cd. To do this, run the ab2cd script on the CD as root. For
    example: cd /cdrom/sol_8_doc/; ./ab2cd Then open your browser and
    enter the URL http://localhost:8888/
    [Thanks to Daniel Chirillo & Dave Uhring]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (5.11) Help! I get a "No VTOC" or cannot mount error installing
    Solaris.

    "VTOC" is a disk volume table of contents. That is, it describes
    Solaris disk slices and, for Solaris Intel, resides at the start of
    the Solaris fdisk partition. The VTOC contains information on Solaris
    slices within the Solaris fdisk partition.

    If you get a message similar to one of these: "Can't open -- No VTOC"
    or "can't open - no hsfs VTOC" you've probably told the install
    program the wrong location of the installation CD. A common error
    during installation is answering this question wrong: "Select one of
    the identified devices to boot the Solaris kernel." What it's really
    asking is the location of the Solaris installation CD, not where
    you're planning on installing Solaris on the hard disk.

    Also, make sure to remove the CD before rebooting.

    For other installation hints, see
    http://www.execpc.com/~keithp/bdlogsol.htm
    [Thanks to Keith Parkansky]

    Copyright © 1997 - 2003 Dan Anderson. All rights reserved.
    http://sun.drydog.com/faq/
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.0) POST-INSTALLATION (CUSTOMIZATION)

    (6.1) How do I add additional drives?

    First, you must have Solaris scan for the new drive. Become root and
    type: "touch /reconfigure; /usr/sbin/reboot" This rebuilds the
    /devices/ and /dev/ directories.

    ATAPI and SCSI the drives are already low-level formatted. If you wish
    to format a SCSI you can use /usr/sbin/format that comes with Solaris.
    A second drive install would use format.

    To create and use a filesystem:
    * Select the disk
    * /sbin/fdisk (select the whole disk or partial for format)
    * Write the label with the "label" option partition, check the
    partition arrangement
    * Create a filesystem with /usr/sbin/newfs on the drive. E.g. "newfs
    /dev/rdsk/c0t1d0s0" creates a filesystem on the the whole drive
    with SCSI ID 1.
    * Create your mount point directory, if it doesn't exist. For
    example, mkdir -p /local
    * mount the partition on your favorite mount point directory. For
    example, mount /dev/dsk/c0t1d0s2 /local mounts slice 2 of disk 0
    of SCSI ID 1 of SCSI controller 0 at /local.
    * Add a line to your /etc/vfstab file. See the vfstab man page for
    details. For example:
    /dev/dsk/c0t1d0s2 /dev/rdsk/c0t1d0s2 /local ufs 1 yes -

    [Thanks to Bob Palowoda's FAQ and Sonny Leman]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.2) How do I add or configure users, printers, serial ports,
    software, etc.?

    Use admintool from X Windows. For the "Keyboard Display or Mouse" use
    kdmconfig.
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.3) How do I suppress the banner page on my printer?

    To disable the banner pages permanently perform the following steps:

    1. cd /usr/lib/lp/model
    2. cp standard standard-nobanner
    3. Use your favorite editor to edit file standard-nobanner. Around
    line 332, change this from: nobanner="no" to: nobanner="yes"
    4. lpadmin -p PRINTERNAME -m standard-nobanner

    Note: unchecking the "Always print banner" box in admintool or running
    "lpadmin -p st -o nobanner" only allows users to submit print requests
    with no banners (lp -onobanner filenamehere), but doesn't suppress
    printing of banner pages by default.

    [Thanks to Youri N. Podchosov and Rob Montjoy's Sun Computer Admin.
    FAQ]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.4) How do I set up an HP-compatible printer to print PostScript
    files?

    Solaris 8 has this ability with Print Manager,
    /usr/sadm/admin/bin/printmgr, or admintool (select
    "Browse-->printers"). Note that higher-end HP printers (e.g., LaserJet
    IV) support PostScript directly. Also, Michael Riley reminds us that
    EPP and ECP printer modes are unsupported.

    Before you do any of this, try printing a plain text file (such as
    /etc/motd) to the printer.

    John Groenveld provides the following instructions for Solaris 8. It
    assumes you have a working GhostScript with a driver for your printer
    and that it's attached to /dev/lp1 (/dev/lp0 on some systems). With
    Solaris 8, USB printers are assigned logical device names
    /dev/printers/[0..N] The printer queue in the example below is called
    "lj6l_ps"

    # Test your driver:
    /opt/gnu/bin/gs -q -dSAFER -dNOPAUSE -sDEVICE=laserjet -sOutputFile=/dev/lp1 \
    /opt/gnu/share/ghostscript/5.50/examples/alphabet.ps

    # Create the printer:
    lpadmin -p lj6l_ps -v /dev/lp1 -o nobanner

    # Create the printer filter definition:
    cat > /etc/lp/fd/laserjet.fd <<eof
    Input types: postscript
    Output types: laserjet
    Printer types: any
    Printers: any
    Filter type: fast
    Command: /opt/gnu/bin/gs -q -dSAFER -dNOPAUSE -sDEVICE=laserjet -sOutputFile=-
    -
    eof

    # Add the filter name to the filter table:
    chown lp:lp /etc/lp/fd/laserjet.fd
    chmod 664 /etc/lp/fd/laserjet.fd
    lpfilter -f laserjet -F /etc/lp/fd/laserjet.fd

    # Configure the printer to use the LaserJet filter:
    lpadmin -p lj6l_ps -I laserjet

    # Stop the data stream to the printer from being modified:
    lpadmin -p lj6l_ps -o stty="-opost"

    # Enable the printer to accept jobs:
    accept lj6l_ps
    enable lj6l_ps

    # Test:
    /usr/ucb/lpr -Plj6l_ps -h /opt/gnu/share/ghostscript/5.50/examples/alphabet.ps

    After it's working you may want to set the default printer with
    environment variables LPDEST and PRINTER in your startup script
    (~/.login or ~/.profile) and with "lpadmin -d"

    Another solution is Common UNIX Printing System (CUPS), which
    implements the Internet Printing Protocol (IPP), RFC 1179. IPP
    standardizes printing of multiple doent formats. CUPS provides
    System V and BSD (lp & lpr) interfaces and supports PostScript with a
    modified version of GhostScript. For Solaris Intel binaries and
    doentation, see http://www.cups.org/ See also the question
    below in this section on easy-to-use printing solutions.
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.5) How can I improve disk and graphic performance?

    Disk Performance (iozone)

    A typical iozone test with 10 to 20 MB sequential file will give about
    2 MB/sec. read/write on a 50 MHz ESIA system on a Maxtor 540SL (8.5
    ms) drive with an Adaptec 2740 controller. You'll get a little better
    performance from a 90 MHz Pentium system. A fully thrashed system will
    see writes down to about 1 MB/sec. I noticed that the NCR 810/825,
    etc., seem a little more peaky in the performance specially on the PCI
    bus.

    If you're using a fast wide SCSI controller such as the Adaptec 2940,
    use a wide SCSI drive for the system drive. These drives usually have
    double the throughput of the normal 8-bit drives, according to the
    iozone benchmark results, and they make the tmpfs fly.

    Note: If you're using high speed spindle drivers for your boot driver,
    like 5400 and 7200 RPM drives, you may want to use "set maxpgio=60"
    for the 5400 RPM drive or "set maxpgio=80" for the 7200 RPM drives in
    your /etc/system file. This causes the schedpaging to be more
    efficient. Enable by typing "touch /reconfigure; /usr/sbin/reboot"

    [Andrew Gabriel adds for ATAPI: Read about drive0_block_factor and
    drive1_block_factor in /platform/i86pc/kernel/drv/ata.conf (man -s 7D
    ata). Even my oldest ATAPI drives support drive0_block_factor=0x10
    without any trouble.]

    For Solaris 8, DMA is disabled for ATAPI devices, as it caused
    installs to fail for several BIOSes. It can be enabled with the
    "ata-dma-enabled" property from the Device Configuration Assistant
    (set it to one). After installation, you can also change this line in
    file /boot/solaris/bootenv.rc:
    setprop ata-dma-enabled '1'
    If you do this and you have a buggy motherboard chipset, your system
    won't boot. This happened to me. You can recover by booting off the
    DCA and mounting the root filesystem (see the answer in this FAQ about
    recovering from forgotten root passwords). Buggy chipsets include
    those with the VIA chipset and ASUS PA5 motherboards. For more
    details, see the Solaris 8 Intel Release Notes.

    Graphic Performance (xstone) Xstones is a little more of a subjective
    measurement of graphics performance. The comp.unix.x.i386
    newsgroup keeps up on the latest xstone performance on graphics cards
    for PC's.

    [From Bob Palowoda's Solaris 2.4 x86 FAQ]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.6) How do I get Solaris to recognize a NE2000 compatible NIC card?

    NEI is the driver name for the Novell/Eagle 2000-compatible family of
    NIC cards. The driver is disabled by default because probing for it
    causes problems with other cards (it sometimes locks the system up).
    If this card is "Plug and Play," you should first disable it and
    configure the card manually, if possible. Don't use DCA probing for
    ne2000: it may disrupt recognition of or access to other devices (in
    my case, it was keyboard :-). So, you have to modify file
    /kernel/drv/nei.conf to include I/O ranges, interrupts (1 line per
    card). For example:
    name="nei" parent="isa" reg=1,0xf600,0x1f interrupts=11;

    Where name, "nei," is what will show up in /dev. The parent, "isa," is
    what bus type to use. The term ISA is misleading as it includes PCI
    bus (To Solaris, it's either "sysbus," the SPARC system bus, or "isa,"
    meaning not SPARC sysbus). The "1" is a flag meaning that I'm going to
    specify I/O port ranges, rather than memory offsets, 0xf600 indicates
    the beginning I/O address, in hex, and 0x1f is the size of the I/O
    range, in hex. The "interrupts=11" indicate IRQ 11, in decimal. Thus,
    I have a PCI NE2000-compatible card, set to base I/O addresses
    0xf600-0xf61f, IRQ 11. As an exercise, decode this example for a real
    NE2000 card:
    name="nei" parent="isa" reg=1,0x220,0x10 interrupts=10;

    You have to add a /etc/hostname.nei0 file with the IP address or
    hostname (if you use IPv6, also add /etc/hostname6.nei0). Add a line
    to /etc/hosts. For example:
    10.1.1.1 foo.bar.com foo

    Check the settings, as root, with "/usr/sbin/drvconfig -i nei". Next,
    as root, type "touch /reconfigure; /usr/sbin/reboot" After rebooting,
    type "ifconfig nei0 plumb" to make sure the device was recognized. It
    should show up in the output from typing "prtconf". For further
    details see Sun FAQ 1105-02 at
    http://access1.Sun.COM/cgi-bin/rinfo2html?110502.faq and the
    Solaris System Administrator Guide, available at
    http://docs.Sun.COM/.

    The NE2000 driver is not included with Solaris 8 (perhaps Sun thought
    it was ISA-card only), but the driver files for Solaris 7, nei and
    nei.bef, can be used instead, as follows (although it's not officially
    supported for Solaris 8):
    * You do not need the real-mode driver file, nei.bef, unless you
    want to install with the NIC enabled. File nei.bef is available by
    downloading the DOS-format DCA diskette for Solaris 7 from
    http://www.sun.com/bigadmin/hcl/drivers/dca_diskettes/ and
    copying file /solaris/drivers/nei.bef file from the DOS-format DCA
    diskette.
    * File /kernel/drv/nei is available from
    ftp://sun.drydog.com/pub/solaris/nei-i86pc-solaris5.7.zip
    Download in binary mode and extract with unzip.
    * You must also create a /kernel/drv/nei.conf text file, even if it
    only has #-comments or empty lines (see above for an example).
    * Add the driver with: "add_drv /kernel/drv/nei; devlinks"

    If you have a Realtek RTL8139 or 8130 10/100 NIC, which is one of the
    more popular and low-cost PCI NICs, you can get a Solaris x86 driver
    from the manufacturer at http://www.realtek.com.tw/ (click on
    "Download", "Network ICs").

    [Thanks to Iram Peerbhai, Martin, Youri Podchosov, Alex Selck, and
    Vincent Cheng]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.7) How do I get Solaris to recognize generic network cards with
    well-known chipsets?

    6.7) How do I get Solaris to recognize a network card that's not on
    the HCL?

    There are many new ethernet cards available at major retailers for
    under $20 using well-supported chipsets. Unfortunately, the cards on
    the Solaris HCL have been out of production for quite some time --
    particularly the Intel cards. Even Solaris 8 does not recognize these
    newer cards. I was amazed how difficult it is to find hardware on the
    Solaris HCL, especially fast ethernet cards. For an example take the
    Intel EtherExpress Pro/100. This card, based on the i82559 chipset,
    has been out of production for years--yet it is the last card
    supported by Solaris 8 01/01. The current Intel InBusiness 10/100 card
    has the very same i82559 chipset in a much smaller BGA package, yet
    Solaris 8 01/01 still won't recognize the card.

    First, save yourself a lot of trouble and see if there's a driver for
    your card somewhere See if the card is listed on the Hardware
    Compatibility List (HCL) for the latest Solaris Maintenance Update
    (MU). The HCL is at http://www.sun.com/bigadmin/hcl/ Check for
    new and third-party drivers at
    http://www.Sun.COM/io_technologies/. Also check to see if there's
    a patch supporting your card at http://access1.Sun.COM/

    A list of third-party drivers (mostly from hardware vendors) for
    Solaris x86 is at
    http://www.sun.com/io_technologies/ihv-drivers.html

    If you have a Linksys LNE100TX or other NIC card, it may be supported
    by one of Garrett D'Amore's Ethernet drivers. See
    http://garrett.damore.org/software/ethernet/

    If there's no driver found above, here's what to do:

    1. Install the card and watch the computer boot. Look for the list of
    devices in the BIOS summary screen. Write down the two 4-digit
    numbers. For the Intel card it was 8086 1030, the PCI/PnP vendor
    and device ID for the InBusiness card.
    2. Boot into Solaris. Open the /boot/solaris/devicedb/master file and
    look for the vendor ID you wrote down. In this example, the vendor
    ID is 8086 for Intel. Look through the file for devices that
    closely fit the description of your device under the vendor ID.
    One of them for this card happens to be iprb for the Intel 82559
    chipset which is listed as:
    pci8086,1029 pc8086,1029 net pci iprb.bef "Intel Pro 100/B Fast
    Ethernet"
    3. If you're confident that you have a reasonable match, add a new
    line to this file that uses the vendor ID and device that you
    wrote down: pci8086,1030 pc8086,1030 net pci iprb.bef "Intel 82559
    You Bonehead"
    4. Open the /etc/driver_aliases file and add a line for the card:
    iprb "pci8086,1030"
    5. Type "devlinks". Type "touch /reconfigure". Restart. Hit ESC in
    the the Device Configuration Assistant phase of the boot process
    and ask it to scan for new devices. It should find your device and
    display the name you typed in in step (3) above. This step is
    crucial--the DCA step in the boot process is where some important
    magic happens.
    6. Once the system is finished booting, note the magic appearance of
    /dev/iprb (or whatever your device is called) and experience joy.
    Type "ifconfig iprb0 plumb" to wake it up. Edit a file called
    /etc/hostname.iprb0 and put your hostname into it. (if you use
    IPv6, also add /etc/hostname6.iprb0). Type "touch /reconfigure"
    just for good measure and restart a final time.

    As another example, these entries (in /etc/driver_aliases and
    /boot/solaris/devicedb/master) support both the 905C and 3C980 card,
    using the elxl driver:
    elxl "pci10b7,9200" elxl "pci10b7,9800"
    pci10b7,9200 pci10b7,9200 net pci elxl.bef "3Com 3C905C-TX-M El XL 10/100"
    pci10b7,9800 pci10b7,9800 net pci elxl.bef "3Com 3C980-TX El Server 10/100"

    Finally, here's a partial list of the sub-$20 cards and their
    chipsets, but I am still looking for the proper driver for the
    super-cheap 100baseT chipsets from Realtek and Macronix as used by
    some Dlink, Hawking, Netgear, and Linksys cards.
    * dnet: SMC, Sohoware, "tulip"
    * iprb: Intel (most)
    * nei: 10baseT NE2000 clones on the PCI bus (Linksys, AT/LANTIC)

    [Thanks to Casper Dik, Bruce Adler, and Kriston]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.8) How do I change the IP address or hostname or both on
    Solaris/x86?

    See the instructions in "man sys-unconfig" Basically, sys-unconfig
    unconfigures the machine to make it ready to be configured again on
    reboot. It's a lot easier and less error prone than the usual dozen or
    so steps required to purge the old IP address. Update: (11/2001):
    sys-unconfig is seriously broken for Solaris 8 FCS (2/2000) and will
    make your system unbootable. If you use it make sure you have a later
    HW update of Solaris 8 or that you apply x86 patch 109319. Use
    "showrev -p" to confirm you have this patch.

    For the thrill-seekers among us, you can also do it "by-hand" by
    editing these files (possibly more?) with your fav. editor:

    /etc/defaultdomain Set the default NIS domain name, if any, if it changed
    ..
    /etc/defaultrouter Set the default router's IP address, if it changed.
    /etc/hostname.le0 (or .hme0 or ?) Update if the hostname changed.
    /etc/hostname6.le0 (or .hme0 or ?) Ditto, if you use IPv6.
    /etc/hostname6.ip.tun0 Update if you use a IPv4/IPv6 tunnel (e.g., 6bone)
    /etc/nodename Update if the hostname changed.
    /etc/nsswitch.conf Update if your name resolution method/order changed.
    /etc/resolv.conf Update if your name servers/domain changed (DNS only).
    /etc/inet/hosts Make sure your IP address is updated or added here.
    List your FQDN is first, before the short hostname.
    E.g., "192.168.128.64 foo.bar.com foo"
    /etc/inet/ipnodes IPv6 version of hosts file (Solaris 8+).
    /etc/inet/netmasks Set your network number & netmask, if it changed.
    /etc/inet/networks Set your network name, if it changed.
    /etc/net/ticlts/hosts For the streams-level loopback interface.
    /etc/net/ticots/hosts For the streams-level loopback interface.
    /etc/net/ticotsord/hosts For the streams-level loopback interface.

    To verify you changed all the files, type this as root: find /etc
    -type f -print|xargs grep `hostname`

    [Thanks to Parthiv Shah, Vijay Brian Gupta, Michael Wang, and Igor
    Sobrado, Chad Treece]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.9) How do I configure another serial port, /dev/ttyb-ttyd (COM2-4)?

    Solaris 2.6 and above configures the second serial port automatically.
    If you just added a serial port type the following:
    touch /reconfigure; /usr/sbin/reboot

    If the serial port isn't present after rebooting, follow these
    instructions:

    For Solaris 7 and above, use admintool and select "Browse-->Serial
    Ports."

    For earlier Solaris versions, or if the steps above don't work,
    perform the following, as root, to add the second serial port. For
    other serial ports and internal modems follow the same steps but
    change the appropriate line in the asy.conf file. This file is located
    at /kernel/drv/asy.conf (Solaris 8) or
    /platform/i86pc/kernel/drv/asy.conf (Solaris 2.6 and earlier).

    Solaris 2.6 and above:

    Edit file asy.conf with to read:

    #interrupt-priorities=12; # This line is present in Solaris 8
    name="asy" class="sysbus" interrupts=12,4 reg=0x3f8,0,0 ioaddr=0x3f8;
    ignore-hardware-nodes=1;
    name="asy" class="sysbus" interrupts=12,3 reg=0x2f8,0,0 ioaddr=0x2f8;

    Solaris 2.5.1 and earlier:

    Remove the comment from the following line in file
    /platform/i86pc/kernel/drv/asy.conf:

    name="asy" class="sysbus" interrupts=12,3 reg=0x2f8,0,0 ioaddr=0x2f8;

    For all versions of Solaris:
    * Save the changed file, asy.conf
    * Type "touch /reconfigure"
    * Type "/usr/sbin/reboot" to restart the system.
    * After you get a message saying syncing file systems and no more
    [N] characters appear, turn your machine off and then turn it on
    again.
    * Verify the device is present with "ls -l /dev/ttyb"
    * For details and for COM3 and COM4 instructions, see
    http://access1.Sun.COM/cgi-bin/rinfo2html?228402.faq

    [Modified from Bruce Riddle's Solarisx86 2.5/Dialup PPP Configs FAQ;
    updates from Michael Wang]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.10) How do I disable Solaris/x86 from probing the UPS on COM2?

    With the following command, ran as root:

    # eeprom com2-noprobe=true

    This (undoented) option to the eeprom command disables boot-up time
    probing of COM2 (apparently done to detect modems). The eeprom command
    alters the Solaris boot sector. If the UPS is connected to a serial
    port during boot-up time, the UPS may go into self-test or shutdown or
    recalibrate. An alternate solution is to disconnect the serial cable
    during booting. With the obvious change, this also works for COM1. See
    also BugID 4038351.

    [Thanks to Andy I. McMullin and John D. Groenveld]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.11) How do I set up Solaris/x86 to use PPP to connect to an ISP?

    "Life is too short for bad PPP software." --Celeste Stokely

    Update (10/2001): I understand aspppd has been removed from Solaris 8.
    Use pppd instead (see the next question).

    Setting up PPP with the system-default aspppd could be an exercise in
    torture. That's because it's based on the old BNU/UUCP communication
    software, which itself is infamously hard to set up.

    Of course, the hardware (modem and serial port) has to be set up
    correctly too. Make sure hardware flow control is enabled.

    The best doentation on it is Bruce Riddle's PPP Configuration for
    Solaris/x86 at http://www.riddleware.com/solx86/ppp-config.html
    Another good guide is at http://www.kempston.net/solaris/ Philip
    Brown has a script to automate asppp configuration at
    http://www.bolthole.com/solaris/configppp.sh

    For pointers to other references, see Stokely's "Serial Port
    Resources" at http://www.stokely.com/unix.serial.port.resources/
    Also see Sun's "Expanding your Network with PPP" in the TCP/IP and
    Data Communications Administration, at docs.Sun.COM and "SunService
    Tip Sheet for SunPPP" (InfoDoc ID 11976).

    Here's some notes that may also help you out with Sun's aspppd:
    1. Make sure you have the "Basic Networking" packages installed,
    otherwise pkgadd SUNWbnur and SUNWbnuu.
    2. Insert IP addresses/host names into the /etc/inet/hosts table.
    Your ISP needs to give you the names or you can look them up on
    the net.
    3. Create /etc/resolv.conf, and add your domainname and nameserver
    lines. Your provider can provide the domainname (probably
    name-of-your-isp.com, unless they have a multi-location
    operation). The DNS nameservers goes on the nameserver lines, 1
    per line.
    4. Edit /etc/mail/sendmail.cf to use relay mailer "ether". The relay
    host should be the SMTP server. This hostname needs to be
    accurate.
    5. Most news readers (like xvnews and Netscape) refer to the
    environment variable NNTPSERVER to find the NNTP server. Set that
    in your environment before invoking the reader. This can go in
    your .profile, .cshrc, or whatever, depending on what shell you
    use.
    6. For the actual PPP connection, the only thing that counts is the
    machine you dial up to (most likely the gateway machine). You'll
    have to edit the /etc/uucp/{Systems, Dialers, Devices} with things
    like your preferred modem setup unless you like one of the
    defaults (one of my character flaws, I guess, I don't like any of
    them), dialing info for the gateway machine (note that our PPP is
    broken, and ignores the time-to-call field, disaster for a lot of
    us), and what serial port you have your modem connected to. Then
    edit the /etc/asppp.cf file to configure the ipdptp0 interface.

    Notes for the examples:
    I have my modem configured to power-on in the mode I like to use for
    my PPP configuration. DISABLE LOGINS ON THE MODEM PORT. I don't recall
    the nameserver IP address of my DNS server, so the example has a bogus
    address for /etc/resolv.conf. I also found that I had to put a delay
    (\d) at the end of the chat script in /etc/uucp/Systems or I couldn't
    get connected. Loopback problems and config error problems, caused by
    the remote system still being in echo mode on the line when my machine
    started sending the first PPP configure packets. Also, I have yet to
    find a 2.4 setup where ttymon grabs the line after PPP times out and
    disconnects (but before the modem has recognized a DTR-down condition
    (my speculation is that our streams stuff doesn't actually take DTR
    down), causing the line to essentially be hung. This is avoided by not
    enabling ttymon on that port. In other words, in keeping with Sun's
    long tradition, truly bi-directional lines are a crapshoot on Suns.

    Examples for my home machine:

    /etc/hosts:
    165.154.15.142 MyPCNameGoesHere
    165.154.1.1 my-isp
    127.0.0.1 localhost

    /etc/resolv.conf:
    domainname hookup.net
    nameserver 165.154.1.7

    /etc/mail/sendmail.cf:
    # (Stuff not included here for brevity) . . .
    Dmether
    # (Stuff not included here for brevity) . . .
    DRmail.tor.hookup.net
    CRmail.tor.hookup.net
    # (Stuff not included here for brevity) . . .

    /etc/uucp/Dialers:
    wb144 =W-, "" \dAT\r\c OK\r \EATDT\T\r\c CONNECT

    /etc/uucp/Devices:
    ACUWB cua/0 - Any wb144

    /etc/uucp/Systems (line split for readability; change the phone #):
    my-isp Any ACUWB 57600 555-2871 "" P_ZERO ogin: MyLoginNameGoesHere \
    assword: MyPasswordGoesHere

    /etc/asppp.cf:
    ifconfig ipdptp0 plumb MyPCNameGoesHere my-isp netmask 0xffffff00 -trailers up
    path
    inactivity_timeout 900
    interface ipdptp0
    peer_system_name my-isp
    debug_level 8
    default_route

    [Thanks to Dennis (from Bob's Solaris 2.4 x86 FAQ) and Wyatt Wong]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.12) Is there any open source PPP that's easier to use than Sun's
    aspppd?

    Yes, PPPd. As you can see, aspppd, the Solaris-bundled ppp product, is
    difficult to setup and use ("infamous"). Part of the problem is it
    uses the old BNU/UUCP programs and configuration files, which are too
    general and weren't really intended for PPP.

    PPPd, which I use, has been ported to Solaris and is easier to
    configure, performs better, and is still free. It's available in
    binary and source from Peter Marelas at
    http://www.phase-one.com.au/solaris-x86/pppd/ PPPd 2.3.5 works
    for Solaris 2.6 - 8. More recent versions of PPPd are not required but
    are available (source only) from
    ftp://cs.anu.edu.au/pub/software/ppp/ Follow instructions in file
    README.sol2 to compile.

    I use PPPD with Solaris 7. PPPD 2.3.5 also works with 2.5.1 and 2.6.
    This product isn't designed for use with SMP machines.

    For Solaris 7, you can use the binaries compiled for Solaris 2.6 (not
    2.5.1). If you compile on Solaris 7, you need to modify source file
    common/zlib.c to compile it. Change every definition of variable "u"
    to "u1". There's 5 occurrences at lines 4215, 4290, 4329, and 4337,
    and 4347. For example, change "inflate_huft *u[BMAX];" to
    "inflate_huft *u1[BMAX];".

    Besides PPPD, mentioned here, Andrew Gabriel mentions there's also DP
    (for Dialup PPP). DP doentation and source is available from
    http://www.acn.purdue.edu/dp/ I don't have any personal
    experience with this software.

    PPPD Configuration

    To configure, you set up a chat script to handle the ISP dialog and
    enter the phone number and other parameters in the pppd options file.
    Examples I use are below (files are in /etc/ppp unless otherwise
    mentioned).

    I removed files chap-secrets and pap-secrets, as I don't need them for
    my ISP. File connect-errors has error output, if any, from bad
    connections.

    File /etc/ppp/ip-down:
    #!/usr/bin/sh
    # Turn off IP forwarding
    /usr/sbin/ndd -set /dev/ip ip_forwarding 0

    File /etc/ppp/ip-up:
    #!/usr/bin/sh
    # Turn on IP forwarding
    /usr/sbin/ndd -set /dev/ip ip_forwarding 1

    File /etc/ppp/ppp-on:
    #!/usr/bin/sh
    # Set up a PPP link
    PEER=myisp
    LOCKDEV=ppp0
    #PPPDOPTS=-d # uncomment for debugging
    if [ -f /etc/ppp/$LOCKDEV.pid ] ; then
    echo "PPP device $LOCKDEV is locked"
    exit 1
    fi
    /usr/local/bin/pppd $PPPDOPTS call $PEER
    exit 0

    File /etc/ppp/ppp-off:
    #!/usr/bin/sh
    # /etc/ppp/ppp-off
    # Shutdown a PPP link
    LOCKDEV=ppp0
    # If the ppp pid file is present then the program is running. Stop it.
    if [ -r /etc/ppp/$LOCKDEV.pid ] ; then
    kill -INT `cat /etc/ppp/$LOCKDEV.pid`
    # If unsuccessful, ensure that the pid file is removed.
    if [ ! "$?" = "0" ] ; then
    echo "removing stale /etc/ppp/$LOCKDEV.pid file."
    rm -f /etc/ppp/$LOCKDEV.pid
    exit 1
    fi
    # Success. Terminate with proper status.
    echo "ppp link $LOCKDEV terminated"
    exit 0
    fi
    echo "ppp link $LOCKDEV is not active"
    exit 1

    File etc/ppp/peers/myisp:
    cua1 # modem is connected to /dev/cua1 (cua0 may be a serial mouse)
    115200 # bits per second (use 38400 or 57600 if this doesn't work)
    lock # Use a UUCP-style lock to ensure exclusive access
    crtscts # use hardware flow control
    noauth # don't require the ISP to authenticate itself
    modem # modem control line
    passive # wait for LCP packets
    connect '/usr/local/bin/chat -v -f /etc/ppp/peers/chat-myisp'
    noipdefault # remote PPP server must supply your IP address.
    # Remove if the remote host doesn't send your IP during
    # IPCP negotiation and uncomment the next:
    #204.94.88.94: # our ip address:gateway address (both are optional)
    defaultroute # use the ISP as our default route

    File etc/ppp/peers/chat-myisp:
    ABORT "NO CARRIER"
    ABORT "NO DIALTONE"
    ABORT "ERROR"
    ABORT "NO ANSWER"
    ABORT "BUSY"
    ABORT "Username/Password Incorrect"
    "" "ATZ"
    OK "ATDT555-2871"
    CONNECT ""
    "ogin:" "^Updan"
    "ssword:" "\qaardvark"

    The last two files require the most modification. Make sure to remove
    read permission ("chmod go-r chat-*") from chat-myisp, as it has your
    login and password information.

    Messages go to /var/adm/messages. A good PPP session should look
    something like this:
    Oct 24 22:47:49 dan.cts.com pppd[1439]: Connect: ppp0 <--> /dev/cua1
    Oct 24 22:47:50 dan.cts.com pppd[1439]: local IP address 204.94.88.94
    Oct 24 22:47:50 dan.cts.com pppd[1439]: remote IP address 205.163.84.83
    Oct 24 23:08:52 dan.cts.com pppd[1439]: Connection terminated.

    Your "netstat -rn" output should have lines that look similar to this:
    Destination Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface
    -------------------- -------------------- ----- ----- ------ ---------
    209.68.192.32 204.94.88.94 UH 1 1 ppp0
    default 209.68.192.32 UG 1 1

    Your "ifconfig ppp0" output should look similar to this:
    ppp0: flags=10008d1<UP,POINTOPOINT,RUNNING,NOARP,MULTICA ST,IPv4> mtu 1500 index
    15
    inet 204.94.88.94 --> 209.68.192.32 netmask ffffff00

    For debugging pppd, add the -d option after pppd (in file ppp-on), add
    this line in /etc/syslog.conf (fields must be tab-separated):

    daemon.* /var/adm/pppd.log

    and restart syslogd with /etc/init.d/syslog stop; /etc/init.d/syslog
    start

    Then, you get the chat script dialog captured to help isolate the
    problem. Print out and read the docs mentioned above if you have
    problems.

    Once the PPP link is working, you can enable DNS hostnames as follows:
    First, Modify this line in /etc/nsswitch.conf to something like:

    hosts: files dns

    Second, add lines similar to this in /etc/resolv.conf:

    domain PutYourISPDomainNameHere.com
    nameserver 192.188.72.18
    nameserver 192.188.72.21

    For more information, See "man pppd" and "man chat" and the FAQ and
    SETUP files provided with pppd. A helpful step-by-step guide is the
    Linux PPP HOWTO at http://www.linuxdoc.org/ The configuration
    file information is the same for Solaris, except change tty references
    from
    /dev/ttyS0 - ttyS4

    to
    /dev/cua0 - cua4

    ..
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.13) Is there any commercial PPP that's easier to use?

    Yes. Solaris sells its "Solstice PPP" product with its server system.
    It requires a license for the server side (usually an ISP), but not
    for the client-side. Previously, you had to have access to the Solaris
    server CDROM to obtain the software. Solstice PPP is now available for
    free download from the Solaris 8 Admin Pack,
    http://www.Sun.COM/software/solaris/easyaccess/sol8.html

    Basically, to set up, you use the GUI program pppinit to set up the
    PPP link. You start and stop PPP with "/etc/init.d/ppp start" (and
    stop), as with aspppd, or use the GUI program ppptool. Solstice PPP is
    doented in the Solstice PPP AnswerBook at http://docs.Sun.COM/
    and a easier to set up than aspppd and pppd.

    Progressive Systems, Inc. sells Morning Star PPP, probably the most
    successful third-party PPP commercial product. It's available for
    Solaris/x86 (and several other systems) for a 15-day evaluation from
    http://www.progressive-systems.com/
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.14) Help! My USRobotics Internal modem doesn't work with PPP.

    If it's a WinModem, you're out of luck--That only works with MS
    Windoze and then only with special drivers. It's missing critical UART
    hardware that's emulated in proprietary software and hardware
    interfaces. WinModems (which run only on Windows) are less expensive
    to manufacture because they don't include a controller. Instead, they
    include proprietary drivers for Windows that offload processing to the
    CPU. For some reason (tell me if you know?), Internal PCI card modems
    all seem to be WinModems.

    If you're using aspppd, supplied with stock Solaris, you can either
    switch to another PPP product that works with USRobotics Internal
    Sportster modems, such as Solaris PPP (not free) or PPPd (free, see
    above) or try this: (from Alan Orndorff's "Solaris x86 Resources,"
    http://www.solarisresources.com/):

    Modify your /etc/uucp/Dialers file in the following manner:

    Add P_ZERO to your modem definition string to set it to "no parity."
    E.g,

    hayes =,-, "" P_ZERO ""
    \dA\pTE1V1X4Q0S2=255S12=255\r\c OK\r \EATDT\T\r\c CONNECT
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.15) PPP runs extremely slow. What's wrong?

    Solaris 2.5.1 patch 101945-34+ has poor TCP performance over slow
    links, including PPP.

    Patches for this, Bug ID 1233827, are available from
    http://developers.Sun.COM/:
    * Solaris/x86 2.5.1: 103631 (IP) and 103581 (TCP)
    * Solaris/x86 2.5: 103170 (IP) and 103448 (TCP)

    Both these patches are in the Recommended Patches set. The "showrev
    -p" command shows what patches you have installed.

    [From Bruce Riddle's Solarisx86 PPP FAQ and Casper Dik's Solaris 2
    FAQ]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.16) How do I configure PPP using Dynamic IP Addresses (DHCP)?

    If you're using Solaris aspppd, you need a void entry in /etc/hosts
    and plumb it to do DHCP with PPP. Basically add this line to
    /etc/inet/hosts:

    0.0.0.1 void

    (Note: for Solaris 2.4 use 0.0.0.0 in lieu of 0.0.0.1)

    Change the ifconfig line in /etc/asppp.cf to link to void rather than
    the local machine IP entry in /etc/inet/hosts. Then add
    "negotiate_address on" to your /etc/asppp.cf file.

    If you're using the open source pppd, simply don't specify an IP
    address in your pppd options file.

    If you're using the commercial Solaris PPP, keep the default of "none"
    when prompted for your IP address by pppinit. Edit file
    /platform/i86pc/kernel/drv/asy.conf

    To use DHCP, either: (1) Add a file /etc/dhcp.ppp0 (where ppp0 is the
    name of your TCP interface shown in ifconfig; usually le0 for
    Ethernet) with the following suggested line:
    wait 60

    Or (2) Edit files /etc/hostname.ppp0 (where ppp0 is the interface
    name) and /etc/nodename to be both empty (0-length) files, then
    /usr/sbin/reboot.

    For more information, see http://docs.Sun.COM/ (search for
    "DHCP") and
    http://www.rite-group.com/consulting/solaris_dhcp.html

    [Thanks to Bruce Riddle, Wyatt Wong, and Ed Ravin]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.17) How do I configure my SoundBlaster card?

    If you have a SoundBlaster 16 PCI or SoundBlaster PCI128 card,
    download and install Philip Brown's Solaris sbpci driver available at
    http://www.bolthole.com/solaris/sbpci/

    If the above doesn't apply (which is the case for older ISA cards),
    try the following procedure for Solaris 2.6 and higher. Become root
    and type: "touch /reconfigure; /usr/sbin/reboot". If this works, you
    should see two links under /dev/sound and be able to play .au files
    with audiotool (2.5.1 instructions follow):

    1. Run "prtconf -pv" to print the current system configuration:
    Node 0xf5a33500
    compatible: 'pnpCTL,00E4,0' + 'sbpro'
    dma-channels: 00000001.00000005
    interrupts: 00000005
    model: 'Audio'
    name: 'pnpCTL,0045'
    pnp-csn: 00000001
    reg: 8e8c00e4.19f815e8.00000000.00000001.00000220.00000 010
    .00000001.00000330.00000002.00000001.00000388.0000 0004
    unit-address: 'pnpCTL,00E4,19f815e8'
    The device ID I want is CTL0045. This comes from the name line
    "pnpCTL,0045". There were a couple of other 'pnp,DDDD' devices.
    This was the only one with the model "Audio".
    2. According to InfoDoc 15830, I used "CTL,0045" from above and
    updated /platform/i86pc/boot/solaris/devicedb/master as follows
    (no comma):
    < CSC0000|PNPB002|PNPB003|CTL0031|ESS1681 sbpro oth all sbpro.bef
    "Sound Blaster"
    - --- 
    "Sound Blaster"
    3. Rebooted and rebuilt my devices:
    # /touch /reconfigure; /usr/sbin/reboot
    4. I also ran the Device Configuration Assistant (DCA) -- press
    Escape as soon as the machine boots, it will prompt you -- just to
    verify that the Sound Blaster showed up in the device list. It did
    as "Sound Blaster." Since I ran the DCA boot will get the -r arg
    anyways.
    5. When I boot /dev/audio was present. Yeah! I am currently listening
    to the Sunday Blues on real audio at
    http://www.sunday-blues.com/listen.html.

    If the above procedure fails for Solaris 2.6 or 7 (as it did for me),
    continue with the procedure below for Solaris 2.5.1.

    For Solaris 2.5.1:

    Edit file /platform/i86pc/kernel/drv/sbpro.conf as instructed in the
    file (note that the instructions were removed for Solaris 2.6 and
    above!). Usually, it's just adding "dma-channels-1,5" to the
    appropriate name="sbpro" line. Then "/touch /reconfigure;
    /usr/sbin/reboot"

    For example, given a SoundBlaster 16 or AWE32, the following specifies
    IRQ 5, Audio I/O Address 0x220, and 8 & 16 bit DMA channels 1 & 5:

    name="sbpro" class="sysbus"
    interrupts=5,2 reg=-1,9,0,1,0x220,0x14 type="SB16" dma-channels=1,5;

    For a SoundBlaster PRO, the entry looks like this (one DMA channel:
    1):

    name="sbpro" class="sysbus"
    interrupts=5,2 dma-channels=1 reg=-1,1,0,1,0x220,0x14 type="SBPRO";

    Leave the other numbers alone. Make sure these resources are
    configured for the card and are not used by other devices. For
    example, NICs and Parallel Ports often use IRQ 5, and token ring cards
    often use IOA 0x220. If you get an invalid interrupt message, try
    using "interrupts=5" in lieu of "interrupts=5,2", where "5" is your
    IRQ.

    For more information, type "man sbpro."

    A commercial alternative to the above is to use 4Front Technologies'
    Open Sound System (OSS). It's available for a free trial for about 10
    days. After that, it's $30, but well-worth the savings in time. For
    cards newer than SoundBlaster 16/32/Pro, it's the only choice. To use,
    download the tar.Z file from http://www.opensound.com/, extract,
    and run the install menu ./oss-install and let it auto-detect the
    sound card. Reboot (or at least sync), then run "soundon" to enable
    the driver manually (see file oss/Readme for how to enable
    automatically).

    [Thanks to Park Byoung-Gi, Steve Krapp, Chris, Dave, Norma, Juergen
    Keil, & Philip Brown]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.18) How do I enable the audio output from my CDROM to my SBPRO
    card?

    Start audiocontrol then select "Record." Ha ha, "Record" really means
    "Sound Source ;-)." In the audiocontrol record window, select
    "Internal CD" (other choices are Microphone or Line in).

    You must have audiocontrol running before starting your favorite CD
    player application. I use workman, but you can try other open source
    players, such as xmcd. I haven't found a GUI CD player built-in with
    Solaris. Anyone? Robert Muir reports you can use this from the command
    line (non-X):
    audiorecord -p internal-cd /dev/null &

    [Thanks to Eugene Bobin and Robert Muir]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.19) Is Solaris/x86 Year 2000 (Y2K) compliant?

    Solaris 8 is Y2K OK out-of-the-box (so far). Solaris 7, 2.6, 2.5.1,
    2.5, and 2.4 can be made Y2K-safe by applying a set of Y2K patches.
    These patches are available at http://sunsolve.Sun.COM/ Note
    these patches are required even though the January 1, 2000 rollover
    date has passed (it will still be Y2K or later!).

    Solaris/x86 Y2K information is available at
    http://www.Sun.COM/y2000/ Of the Y2K patches, only the make and
    sccs patch are in the Recommended Patches set.

    For Solaris/x86 Y2K recommended patches, see
    http://access1.Sun.COM/patch.y2k/

    For the entire Y2K patch cluster for each Solaris release, see
    http://sunsolve.Sun.COM/pub-cgi/show.pl?target=patches/y2k-patche
    s This latter link may be restricted to registered or licensed users.
    I certainly didn't pay any money to access it though (other than the
    Solaris license). Y2K Patches exist for Solaris Intel 7, 2.6, 2.5.1,
    2.5, and 2.4. Note that not all Y2K patches are in the "recommended"
    patch cluster for each release.

    The "showrev -p" command shows what patches you have installed. Anyone
    can download recommended patches. Non-recommended patches are not as
    serious and generally require registration to access and download.
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.20) Can I use Solaris/x86 to setup a "headless" server?

    The answer is yes, it can be done, but it's BIOS dependent, since many
    BIOS chips won't boot up the system without the keyboard and video
    card. The console can be configured to go to serial ports as described
    below. Removal of video card is also BIOS dependent. Setup steps:


    only) set the serial line's Data Set Ready (DSR) to HIGH. If you
    don't--it won't boot. This can be done with a NULL modem or with the
    following 25-pin or 9-pin pinouts:
    DTE A DTE B
    25 (9) 25 (9)
    ------ ------
    FG 1 (-) ------ 1 (-) FG
    TD* 2 (3) ------ 3 (2) RD
    RD 3 (2) ------ 2 (3) TD*
    CTS 5 (8) -+---- 20 (4) DTR*
    DSR 6 (6) -| +- 5 (8) CTS
    CD 8 (1) -+ |- 6 (6) DSR
    DTR* 20 (4) ----+- 8 (1) CD
    SG 7 (5) ------ 7 (5) SG
    RTS* 4 (7) (nc) 4 (7) RTS*
    RI 22 (9) (nc) 22 (9) RI
    * DTE (terminal/computer) driven
    (nc) = no connection

    If the NULL modem is "incomplete", the boot process hangs shortly
    after starting the asy driver (after the message "asy0 is
    /isa/asy1,3f8" or similar asy1/2f8 message). For details, see
    http://www.freebsd.org/handbook/hw-io.html




    ttyb): eeprom input-device=ttya output-device=ttya (just like SPARC?
    ;-)
    Update: Andrew Schwabecher reports that using "ttya" doesn't work.
    Instead, he adds these entries to /boot/solaris/bootenv.rc:
    setprop output-device com1
    setprop input-device com1

    For 2.5.1, add "set console = 1" to /etc/system.

    Steve Rikli adds the following simpler 3-pin alternative, in lieu of
    the above:

    I've found that, while the full NULL modem pinouts work just fine, a
    simple 3-pin (TD/RD/SG) pinout scheme will also work in Solaris 8 by
    issuing eeprom commands thusly:
    eeprom output-device=ttya
    eeprom input-device=ttya
    eeprom ttya-ignore-cd=true

    The kicker is the "-ignore-cd" variable, which doesn't seem to be
    present by default on a Solaris x86 install, unlike Solaris for SPARC
    hardware. But setting it does work and it does persist across
    reboot/power-cycle. In the absence of "ttya-ignore-cd=true" one does
    indeed need a full NULL modem pinout.

    PC Weasel 2000, at http://www.realweasel.com/intro.html is a PCI
    board that emulates VGA cards over a serial line. This provides a
    serial console interface for PC-class computers transparent to the
    operating system. This is useful for BIOS configuration and the
    Solaris Device Configuration Assistant (DCA) remotely. Of course, you
    can't run CDE with it, but once Solaris is up, you can use a regular
    serial port. Herb Peyerl, one of the company founders, adds: "I've
    tested this card under 2.8 and it works fine. There isn't a Solaris
    Watchdog driver for the Weasel yet and sometimes the text attributes
    are a little funky, but it's certainly usable."

    [Thanks to John Weekley, Scott Wedel, Kenneth Wagner, Andy Spitzer,
    Kai O'Yang, Michael Wang, David Page, Andrew Schwabecher, Steve Rikli,
    Richard Shuford, and Herb Peyerl]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.21) Can I get a Sun-style keyboard (Ctrl & Caps Lock reversed) for
    S/x86?

    PFU America, http://www.pfuca.com/, sells it's "Happy Hacking
    Keyboard" for $49. It's Sun type 5 keyboard with only the essential 60
    keys.

    NuData's Workstation Express catalog has a Sun PC-style type 5
    keyboard. The keyboard feels much more solid that a typical PC
    keyboard. It didn't work my Toshiba Tecra 740CDT laptop, but works for
    my desktop computer. The keyboard can be ordered from their web page
    at http://www.nudata.com/keyboard.htm The part number is #IZ100,
    and it needs a PS/2 (#IZ102) adapter. Cost is $85 + $20 for the
    adapter.

    You can order a Sun USB keyboard and mouse that works quite well with
    Solaris 8 Intel. They are available from Sun Store,
    http://store.sun.com/, with the following part numbers:
    * US/Unix Type 6 USB Keyboard: 320-1273 ($65)
    * 3-button "crossbow" USB Mouse: 370-3632 ($35)

    If you don't want to buy any new hardware, you can use just software
    to switch Control_L and Caps_Lock keys. Create file $HOME/.xmodmaprc
    with:
    remove Lock = Caps_Lock
    remove Control = Control_L
    keysym Control_L = Caps_Lock
    keysym Caps_Lock = Control_L
    add Lock = Caps_Lock
    add Control = Control_L

    and add "xmodmap $HOME/.xmodmaprc" to your $HOME/.dtprofile file.

    For the adventurous electrician, there's a web page to show how to
    build and program a PCB to to drive a Sun Type 5/6 keyboard from a PC.
    This includes a PCB mask, source code, and instructions. See
    http://www.buzzard.org.uk/jonathan/

    [Thanks to Don Christensen and Ian Hall-Beyer]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.22) Can I run multiple terminals on the console of Solaris x86 like
    those supported on Linux, FreeBSD, Interactive Unix, and SCO?

    Maybe. Starting with Solaris/x86 2.4, they are no longer configured
    during the installation, but they still work if configured afterwards
    by hand. Starting with Solaris 8, they are removed.

    If you have Solaris 2.4 to 7, you can configure multiple virtual
    terminals back in yourself as follows:

    First, as root, verify the device's major number with grep:

    # grep -i chanmux /etc/name_to_major
    chanmux <number>

    Second, verify the /dev/vt* entries are present (with ls -l /dev/vt*).
    If not present, add the /dev entries, substituting whatever you found
    with the grep output for <number>:

    mknod /dev/vt01 c <number> 1
    mknod /dev/vt02 c <number> 2
    etc...

    Copy and paste the following to /etc/inittab (after the "co:" entry),
    and verify no line breaks are added:

    v1:234:respawn:/usr/lib/saf/ttymon -g -h -p "VT01 Login: " -T AT386 -d /dev/vt0
    1 -l console
    v2:234:respawn:/usr/lib/saf/ttymon -g -h -p "VT02 Login: " -T AT386 -d /dev/vt0
    2 -l console
    v3:234:respawn:/usr/lib/saf/ttymon -g -h -p "VT03 Login: " -T AT386 -d /dev/vt0
    3 -l console
    v4:234:respawn:/usr/lib/saf/ttymon -g -h -p "VT04 Login: " -T AT386 -d /dev/vt0
    4 -l console
    v5:234:respawn:/usr/lib/saf/ttymon -g -h -p "VT05 Login: " -T AT386 -d /dev/vt0
    5 -l console
    v6:234:respawn:/usr/lib/saf/ttymon -g -h -p "VT06 Login: " -T AT386 -d /dev/vt0
    6 -l console
    v7:234:respawn:/usr/lib/saf/ttymon -g -h -p "VT07 Login: " -T AT386 -d /dev/vt0
    7 -l console

    To get init to reread inittab, either /usr/sbin/reboot, or issue the
    command: /usr/sbin/init q

    Now, Alt-PrintScreen F1 switches to VT01, Alt-PrintScreen F2 switches
    to VT02, etc. (if activated as above) Alt-PrintScreen P switches to
    the previous screen. Alt-PrintScreen N switches to the next screen.
    Alt-PrintScreen H switches to the X console screen (not
    Alt-PrintScreen F8).

    Press "Alt" and "PrintScreen" together then the next key (e.g., F3).
    This is also doented in Sun's FAQ 2245-02,
    http://access1.Sun.COM/cgi-bin/rinfo2html?244502.faq Sun's FAQ
    has three typos. In Step 2's example, replace the second "mknod
    /dev/vt01 c <num> 1" with "mknod /dev/vt02 c <num> 1" In Step 3,
    replace "co:" in the FAQ with "v1:" to "v7:" and remove the line
    breaks between "-T" and "AT386". The "PrintScreen" key is the same as
    the "SysReq" key.

    If you're using XFree86, you need to leave one VT open (usually VT07);
    otherwise XFree86 will not run.

    [Adapted from Casper Dik's Solaris 2 FAQ; XFree86 info from Gantry
    Zettler]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.23) How do I upgrade my video graphics card?

    First see if you have the driver installed. They are listed when you
    run kdmconfig. If the driver is present, configure with kdmconfig. If
    it's a new card, see if it's listed in the latest driver updates for
    your Solaris release on http://access1.Sun.COM/drivers/ If
    listed, install the update. kdmconfig is ran automatically at the end
    of the update installation. Before changing cards, choose, from
    kdmconfig, the 16-color 640x480 VGA setting, which is the
    lowest-common denominator for VGA video cards. After switching cards
    and rebooting (verifying the VGA setting works for the new card)
    choose a higher setting with kdmconfig.

    See the Update Guide that comes with the update on specific
    installation instructions for the update. Generally, it's done as
    follows: (assuming the image downloaded from access1.Sun.COM is named
    vdu11image.Z and is in /tmp), type as root:
    # cd /tmp
    # uncompress du11vid2.Z ; cat du11vid1.bin du11vid2 | cpio -icvdum
    # zcat vdu11image.Z | cpio -icvdumB
    # ./installdu.sh
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.24) How to I burn a CD-R or CD-RW with Solaris?

    Use cdrecord (free) or commercial software. SCSI CD-R (Record once)
    and CD-RW (Read-Write many times) drives tend to be better supported
    than ATAPI drives. For details, see the Sun CD-ROM FAQ at
    http://saturn.tlug.org/suncdfaq/ and Jörg Schilling's cdrecord
    page at:
    http://www.fokus.gmd.de/research/cc/glone/employees/joerg.schilli
    ng/private/cdrecord.html
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.25) Is IPv6 available for Solaris/x86?

    Yes, starting in Solaris 8. See http://www.Sun.COM/solaris/ipv6/.
    For general IPv6 information, see http://www.ipv6.org/. If you
    wish to connect to the 6bone, an experimental, mostly tunneled IPv6
    network, see http://www.6bone.net/
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.26) Is IPsec available for Solaris/x86?

    Yes, for Solaris 8. See volume 3 of the System Administrator's Guide
    at http://docs.Sun.COM/ for more configuration information.
    Solaris 8 IPSec supports AH (authentication) and ESP (encryption)
    headers, and "shared secrets" (manual keying), but not automatic
    (ISAKMP or IKE) keying. Solaris 9 supports IKE.

    Adam Barclay adds these comments:
    * The ESP portion is not installed by default. You have to download
    supplemental encryption packages (SUNWcry, SUNWcryr, etc) from Sun
    http://www.sun.com/software/solaris/encryption/
    * ipseckey is broken under Solaris 8 10/00 and at this point there
    doesn't appear to be a patch. In the meantime, I use an earlier
    release.
    * ndd queries may give misleading results if ipseckey hasn't been
    run.

    As a reminder, some countries prohibit (e.g., France or Russia) the
    use or possession of encryption software.
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.27) Is Kerberos 5 available for Solaris/x86?

    Yes, for Solaris 8. See volume 3 of the System Administrator's Guide
    at http://docs.Sun.COM/ for more configuration information. The
    configuration files reside at /etc/krb5 and /var/krb5 and the binary
    files at /usr/krb5 and /usr/lib/krb5. Make sure you answer "y" to
    whether you want Kerberos during your Solaris install. Then, install
    SEAM (Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism, what Solaris calls
    Kerberos) from the Solaris 8 Admin Pack, freely downloadable from
    http://www.Sun.COM/software/solaris/easyaccess/sol8.html
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.28) Does Solaris x86 support multiple processors?

    Yes. Solaris x86 automatically detects multiple processors. The limit
    is at least 8 according to the HCL and by observation. The theoretical
    kernel limit (_ncp) is 21. Due to bus conflicts, there's diminishing
    returns as you increase the number of procs. psrinfo(1M) will print
    the status of your processors, mpstat(1M) will report the CPU usages,
    and psradm(1M) can be used to take processors offline.

    Some people have had problems with Solaris "seeing" the extra
    processors, with at least one type of motherboard (Compaq?). They had
    success with going into the BIOS utility and setting OS type to
    "other" for "Solaris". With most motherboards no special BIOS settings
    are required. Likewise, Solaris x86 also supports Intel's
    Hyperthreading (multiple logical processors). This is because most or
    all of the additional support required is in the motherboard and not
    Solaris.

    [Thanks to John Groenveld, Juergen Keil, Bob Palowoda, Bruce Alder,
    and Michael VanLoon]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.29) How do I uncompress a .gz file?

    With "gzip -d" (or gunzip, which is gzip linked to gzip). Solaris 8
    has gzip. Solaris 7 or earlier does not come with gzip (it doesn't
    have zip either--only unzip). Gzip is available as a pre-compiled
    package from http://www.sunfreeware.com/ (use "pkgadd -d
    packageFileName" to install) and also as a tar file (to extract, type
    "uncompress gzip*Z; tar xvf gzip*.tar") at
    ftp://ftp.netscape.com/pub/unsupported/gnu/gzip-1.2.4.x86-sun-sol
    aris2.4.tar.Z
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.30) Why doesn't /usr/bin/cc work?

    Because it's just a front-end "stub" for the unbundled C compiler sold
    by Sun (SunPro C). You can also get the free GNU C compiler, gcc, in
    pkg add format from various locations, including the Solaris Software
    Companion CD and http://www.sunfreeware.com/. If you install gcc,
    I recommend that you rename or compress /usr/bin/cc and softlink (ln
    -s) /usr/local/bin/gcc (or /opt/sfw/bin/gcc or wherever it is) to
    /usr/bin/cc. By default, Solaris comes with support tools (such as
    make and libraries) in /usr/ccs/bin, /usr/ccs/lib and usr/include. If
    not, add the appropriate packages. For more information, see the
    "Software Development" section in Casper Dik's Solaris 2 FAQ.
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.31) How do you get PGP 2.6.2 to compile on Solaris/x86?

    PGP, or Pretty-good Privacy, is strong-encryption software for
    encrypting, decrypting, and digitally-signing files and data. I would
    steer clear of PGP 5 as it has compatibility problems.

    First, check to see if your version of PGP 2.6.2 has a bug. In file
    src/crypto.c, function make_signature_certificate(), the line: "byte .

    outbuf[MAX_BYTE_PRECISION+2];"

    To compile, change file makefile, at around line 116, as follows:
    $(CPP) $(ASMDEF) 80386.S > _80386.s to
    $(CPP) $(ASMDEF) 80386.S | grep -v '^# ' > _80386.s
    (Don't forget the leading tab character, cntl-i). Next, type: cd
    rsaref/install/unix; make; cd ../../../src; make solx86gcc (if you're
    using the Sun WorkShop/Sun ONE compilers, change "gcc" to "cc" and
    remove "-traditional-cpp" in file makefile).

    I recommend you consider using GPG instead of PGP. GPG, Gnu Privacy
    Guard, is actively being maintained and is compatible with PGP. See
    http://www.gnupg.org/

    As a reminder, the US Government considers PGP, GPG, and other
    strong-encryption software a "munition" and prohibits the export of
    PGP software to countries other than the US and Canada without an
    export license. Certain other governments (e.g., France or Russia)
    even prohibit possession of encryption software.

    To use PGP, I hightly recommend Garfinkel's book, PGP: Pretty
    Good Privacy

    [Makefile patch from Joe Shamblin]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.32) How do you connect Solaris to my cable modem?

    See also the next question on RoadRunner.

    At least for the the East Brunswick, NJ, servers, I had the easiest
    time with DHCP (not the static setup):
    /etc/hosts:
    127.0.0.1 localhost CCxx-A # where CCxx-A is your hostname
    24.x.x.x CCxx-A loghost # where 24.x.x.x is your assigned I
    P

    /etc/nsswitch.conf:
    hosts: files dns

    /etc/resolv.conf
    domain ebnsk1.nj.home.com
    nameserver 24.3.196.33
    nameserver 24.3.196.33

    /etc/dhcp.elx0 (empty file)

    /etc/hostname.elxl0 (empty file)
    NOTE: replace "elxl0" with your NIC device name

    No /etc/defaultdomain, /etc/defaultrouter, or /etc/netmasks files are
    used. This info is handled by DHCP. Reboot and you're hooked up.
    Here's my (partially disguised) netstat -rn and ifconfig -a outputs:
    $ netstat -rn
    Routing Table:
    Destination Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface
    -------------------- -------------------- ----- ----- ------ ---------
    24.x.x.0 24.x.x.x U 3 2 elxl0
    224.0.0.0 24.x.x.x U 3 0 elxl0
    default 24.x.x.1 UG 0 44
    127.0.0.1 127.0.0.1 UH 0 236 lo0

    $ ifconfig -a
    lo0: flags=849<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING,MULTICAST> mtu 8232
    inet 127.0.0.1 netmask ff000000
    elxl0: flags=4843<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST,DHCP> mtu 1500
    inet 24.x.x.x netmask ffffff00 broadcast 24.x.x.255

    [Thanks to Alan Lucero.]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.33) How do you setup Solaris to use RoadRunner's cable modem
    service?

    RoadRunner uses General Instrument's SURFboard or other cable modem
    hooked up to a coax cable on one side and a straight-through Ethernet
    cable on the other side. The real throughput is about 6-MB/sec. on
    downlinks and 768KB/sec. on uplinks. The cable modem looks like a
    router to your computer.

    RoadRunner configures home systems with Dynamic Host Configuration
    Protocol (DHCP), which provides the IP address, default route, and
    name servers. RoadRunner only supports Windows and Macs, but it works
    fine with Solaris (they just won't help you setup or diagnose Solaris
    DHCP). You need Solaris 2.6 or higher for DHCP. To set it up for
    Solaris, follow these steps, as root:
    1. "touch /etc/dhcp.iprb0" (replace the ".iprb0" with whatever the
    ethernet interface for your system might be, as shown by "ifconfig
    -a")
    2. "cp /dev/null /etc/hostname.iprb0". You need to make *SURE* that
    this file is EMPTY - otherwise, DHCP configuration won't work.
    3. Make sure that /etc/inet/hosts only has one line in it, the one
    containing "127.0.0.1 localhost". Any other lines will be ignored,
    and any additional necessary lines will be added by the DHCP
    client at boot time.
    4. "touch /etc/notrouter" - this creates a file to tell Solaris that
    your system will not be performing routing or packet-forwarding
    duties (if that's the case in your situation). If it already
    exists, good. Leave it be. 8-)
    5. "cp /dev/null /etc/defaultrouter" - since the DHCP client software
    will automatically put the needed entries in this file, we just
    need to make sure that it exists as an empty file. If it already
    exists, rename it and create the empty file in its place.
    6. "cp /dev/null /etc/resolv.conf" - again, the necessary entries
    will be added by the DHCP client. If you already have this file,
    rename it and create an empty file in its place.
    7. Edit the file /etc/nsswitch.conf, and look at the "hosts:" line.
    By default, it reads "files"; change it to read "hosts: files
    dns". This will enable your machine to resolve addresses using
    DNS, the Domain Name System.

    Once you've performed these steps, your machine is ready to get its
    networking information via DHCP. The easiest way to do this is to
    reboot your machine. You will see status messages during boot about
    the DHCP client, this is normal. Once the machine is booted type the
    "ifconfig -a" command. You will see output similar to this:
    $ ifconfig -a
    lo0: flags=849 mtu 8232
    inet 127.0.0.1 netmask ff000000
    iprb0: flags=4843 mtu 1500
    inet 24.93.53.4 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 24.93.53.255
    ether 8:0:20:1b:1:72

    The entry we're concerned about is iprb0 (lo0 is the dummy loopback
    interface); just make sure that its configured via DHCP, and that an
    IP address and broadcast address was assigned. You can also check the
    /etc/resolv.conf and /etc/defaultrouter files to make sure they were
    configured by the DHCP client.

    Type "nslookup sun.drydog.com" to test that /etc/nsswitch.conf and
    /etc/resolv.conf are setup correctly for DNS lookups. If not, they may
    need to be hand-edited with values provided by your ISP. These files
    are doented in nsswitch.conf(4) and resolv.conf(4). The resolv.conf
    needs to have "domain" and "nameserver" lines.

    Type "netstat -rn" to see if there's a "default" destination
    configured in /etc/defaultrouter and type "ping sun.drydog.com" to
    verify routing is OK. Use "traceroute sun.drydog.com" to diagnose
    routing problems.

    Type "hostname" to see if it says "unknown." If so, DHCP did not
    provide a hostname. One workaround is to edit /etc/init.d/network and
    replace all occurrences of "unknown" with your real hostname.

    This information is adapted from a web page by Bill Bradford at
    http://home.austin.rr.com/sunhelp/rr/solarisrr.html. Some (older)
    RoadRunner setups may still require a RoadRunner login program. This
    is explained in that link.

    RoadRunner information is at http://www.rr.com/ and help is at
    http://help.rr.com/ The Unofficial RR FAQ is at
    http://members.tripod.com/~tlarrow/rrfaq.htm

    For generic cable modem information, see the e-zine article "xDSL and
    cable modems" referenced in the previous question on Home service.
    The article covers instructions on enabling Solaris with a cable ISP.
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.34) How do I force the speed and/or duplex of my network interfaces
    (ndd(1M) doesn't work)?

    No x86 driver can be interfaced via ndd(1M). The only way to set
    speed/duplex is via the NIC's driver.conf(4). iprb(7D) on Solaris 8
    suggests that you can specify speed/duplex for multiple instances via
    ForceSpeedDuplex option. For other drivers, you'll need to specify
    each instance per driver.conf(4). Finally, for most people,
    auto-negotiating works as expected. Having to hard-code values may
    indicate cabling or switch problems.
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.35) Why can't I create a home directory under /home?

    For Solaris, /home is not an on-disk file system, it is a file system
    under the control of the automounter, and only the automounter can
    create directories/files in it.

    If you don't want the automounter to manage /home, then remove the
    "/home" entry from /etc/auto_master (and issue the command "automount
    -v" to force the file to be reread, or reboot).

    However, the typical setup for Solaris is to locate user's home
    directories in /export/home.

    /home is intended to be where all users' home directories appear
    regardless of which machine they are really located on--by virtue of
    the automounter and auto_home map. This makes your home directory
    always appear in the same place regardless of which machine you login
    to, and regardless of which server the sysadmin decides to move your
    home directory.

    If you are not part of a network with workstations and servers, this
    may look strange. If you want to, as a demonstration, you can set up a
    standalone workstation to operate this way, as follows. (I'm assuming
    you still have the default setup of /home under the control of the
    automounter.)

    Create a user with a home directory in /export/home, say,
    /export/home/andrew, so that the directory is correctly created with
    ..profile, .login, etc in it.

    Put the following line in /etc/auto_home:

    andrew cuber:/export/home/andrew

    (substitute your user name for 'andrew' and your hostname for
    'cuber'). If there is an "+auto_home" entry in there, comment it
    out. Make the automounter reread the files: "automount -v".

    You should now be able to "ls /home/andrew" and see the files there
    which are in /export/home/andrew.

    If you issue the command "/usr/sbin/mount -p", you will see that
    /export/home/andrew has been mounted on /home/andrew (by the
    automounter). Normally this would be an NFS mount to a remote server,
    but in this case the system has spotted that is it attempting to NFS
    mount itself and uses the loop-back filesystem instead (lofs) which
    avoids the NFS overhead when the filesystem is on the same machine.

    Finally, to complete the use of /home, you should change Andrew's
    entry in the /etc/passwd file such that the home directory is
    /home/andrew.

    In a networked environment, you also need to add /export/home to the
    /etc/dfs/dfstab file so that it is available for other clients to
    mount. Also, the /etc/passwd file and /etc/auto_master file (and much
    more besides) would be obtained using naming services from a single
    networked copy, so you would only need to set this up once whatever
    the size of your network, not once per workstation.

    [Thanks to Andrew Gabriel]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.36) Is Veritas file system available for Solaris Intel?

    Only through NCR Corporation.
    [Thanks to Bob Palowoda]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.37) How to I use Zip and Jazz Drives for Solaris Intel?

    Iomega's Zip and Jazz Drives are supported by the Solaris 8 volume
    manager. For example, with a ATAPI Zip100 or Zip250 drive, run
    "volcheck" and it gets mounted as /rmdisk/zip0 If that doesn't work,
    see if you can mount it manually (if DOS formatted). For example:
    # Master on second ATAPI controller:
    /usr/sbin/mount -F pcfs /dev/dsk/c1t0d0p0:c /mnt
    # Slave on first ATAPI controller:
    /usr/sbin/mount -F pcfs /dev/dsk/c0t0d0p0:d /mnt

    For Solaris 7 and older, Iomega has instructions on how to install and
    use them at http://www.iomega.com/support/doents/2019.html The
    hardware installation is the same as for MS DOS/Windows systems. Once
    installed, use the "mount" command to access the drives. See the
    question below on mounting DOS filesystems.

    Note that external drives with the parallel port connection are not
    supported. This requires a specialized driver.

    [Thanks to Chase for the s8 update]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.38) How to I use Linux NIC drivers for Solaris Intel?

    Sun has released (9/2000) a free network driver porting kit to port
    Linux PCI-based network drivers to Solaris Intel. The kit includes, as
    examples, ported Linux drivers for the Intel EEPro100 and the Digital
    "Tulip" 2104x/2114x chip (a reliable chip used by the Netgear
    FA-310-TX, SMC EtherPower, Kingston EtherX, D-Link DFE, and other
    lower-cost cards) For further information, see
    http://www.sun.com/solaris/ndpkit.html
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.39) How to I add color to "ls" or "vi"?

    For "ls" you need the GNU "fileutils" version of ls. Obtain the binary
    from http://www.sunfreeware.com/ or compile it yourself from
    source from http://www.gnu.org/ I only use "ls" out of all the
    utilities in the package and install it in /usr/local/bin/ls. I then
    use this alias: alias ls='/usr/local/bin/ls --color=auto' (remove the
    "=" for *csh shells).

    For vi, I use vim (or gvim for X Windows). It is also available from
    http://www.sunfreeware.com/ or directly from
    http://www.vim.org/. You may need to add "syntax on" in your
    $HOME/.vimrc file to enable syntax coloring.

    If color output still doesn't appear, for either of these, make sure
    your terminal emulator supports color (e.g., dtterm) and that your
    $TERM is set correctly. To verify you can display color, copy, paste,
    and execute this line in your shell prompt (you should see the letters
    "blue" highlighted in blue):
    /bin/echo '\033[0m\033[01;34mblue\033[0m'
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.40) How to I move the disk containing Solaris from the ATAPI
    primary master controller to the secondary controller or slave
    connector (or both)?

    * Move the disk with Solaris to the new location (secondary master
    controller or primary or secondary slave controller).
    * Boot from the "1 of 2" Solaris installation CDROM
    * mount the root boot partition at /mnt
    * Reconfigure the device tree:
    drvconfig -r /mnt/devices
    devlinks -r /mnt
    disks -r /mnt
    Verify that the links /dev/dsk/c1d0s* to ../../devices/* exist.
    * Type "rm /etc/path_to_install" (or remove all lines but comments
    in this file)
    * Edit file /boot/solaris/bootenv.rc. For example if you're moving
    from the primary master to secondary master, change "ide0" to
    "ide1":
    setprop bootpath '/pci0,0/pci-ide4,1/ide0/cmdk0,0:a' to
    setprop bootpath '/pci0,0/pci-ide4,1/ide1/cmdk0,0:a'
    * Remove the CDROM and /usr/sbin/reboot (if you removed
    /etc/path_to_install then, at the booting Solaris prompt, type "b
    -a")

    Once Solaris is on the secondary master, you must enable booting to
    it. Here's three methods:
    * Change the BIOS settings to boot to D: (the secondary master)
    * Boot from the DCA diskette on A: and choose the secondary master
    device.
    * If you have Linux LILO on the primary master, you can add an entry
    to /etc/lilo.conf similar to the following (and type /sbin/lilo on
    Linux to re-read the new lilo.conf file):
    # Solaris 2.7 in secondary master booted by Linux Red Hat 6.1
    # /boot/chain.b simply starts the boot sector on the specified partition.
    # /dev/hdc1 is the first partition on the third (hdc) disk.
    other = /dev/hdc1
    loader = /boot/chain.b
    label = solaris

    [Thanks to Michael Wang and Alexander Yu]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.41) I've installed Solaris using Sun's brain dead disk slice
    defaults. How do I modify my slices?

    You don't. It's too late now, but you should have read the
    recommendations on disk partitions and sizes in section 4 of this
    FAQ. Solaris (unless you're running under Veritas) doesn't support
    modifying slices without destroying data on the entire slice. Your
    options are (in order of ease):
    * Reinstall and choose your own custom layout.
    * Create softlinks or local mounts to filesystems with more free
    space and move the files. E.g. for /opt:
    "mv opt/export/home" and
    "mount localhost:/export/home/opt /opt" or "ln -s /export/home/opt
    /opt
    * Backup, boot install media, and run format, newfs, & restore

    [Thanks to John D. Groenveld]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.42) How do I mirror root with Disksuite when /boot is a separate
    fdisk partition?

    You don't. Disksuite only supports mirroring ufs filesystems, so in
    order to mirror /boot, it should be part of the root (/) slice inside
    Sun's fdisk partition. Sun's default install will create a separate
    10MB "x86 Boot" fdisk partition which is mounted as pcfs. If you
    already have Disksuite running the solution is as follows:

    Start with all the mirrors in place except for the :boot partition and
    had identical layouts on both disks.
    1. Back up all my important stuff.
    2. Use metadb to delete the state db's on the Disk 1 and Disk 2 ( I
    have Disk 3 and Disk 4 for the time being).
    3. Get a tar backup of /boot directory and save it in / (root)
    4. metadetach and metaclear all the Submirror's from the Disksuite
    db's on disk 2.
    5. Recreate Disk 2 Partition table (using fdisk) to be 100% Solaris
    and rebuild Solaris Partition(Slice) table (using prtvtoc/fmthard)
    6. Re-mirror Disk 2 So it's almost identical to how it was at the
    beginning, except the x86 partition table is now one big Solaris
    partition. I.e., starting at the very beginning of the disk. This
    is very important, otherwise the bootblock installation won't
    work.
    7. Untar the boot directory tar file so now i've /boot ufs mirror
    under the / mount.
    8. Do step 4 on Disk 1.
    9. Do step 5 on Disk 1.


    ambiguous on this, but the Sunsolve doc says it must be run on
    slice 2 [it's obvious if you think about it]).


    the / fs.



    [Thanks to "Nick" via John D. Groenveld]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.43) Is ISDN supported for Solaris x86?

    ISDN is hard to setup and slow compared to cable-modem service or even
    DSL. However, ISDN is popular and available in Europe. Some old
    SPARCstations had ISDN support built in. However, there are no
    Sun-supplied drivers other than for these machines. There are
    third-party drivers for Solaris x86 from:
    * Brooktrout Technology, http://www.brooktrout.com, for it's
    T1/E1 WAN Controller
    * http://www.teles.de/, Teles for its ISDN cards.
    * Digi has ISDN drivers for its DataFire Sync 570i.

    I'm sure other drivers exist. Before buying ISDN hardware, check if
    they have a driver for Solaris first.
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.44) Is there a substitute available for PRNG /dev/random for
    Solaris x86?

    Yes. /dev/random and /dev/random are pseudo-random number generators
    (PRNG). /dev/random will wait if the entropy pool of random bits is
    empty until more bits are available. /dev/urandom will not wait and
    may repeat bits. PRNGs are used to implement encryption software, such
    as GPG, OpenSSL, and OpenSSH. The /dev/*random pseudo-devices are
    available with Solaris 9, or, for Solaris 8, with patch 112439-01 for
    Intel Solaris. This patch is free and is part of the recommended patch
    cluster.

    Free PRNG substitutes include egd and prngd. Enthropy Gathering Daemon
    (egd), a /dev/random replacement, outputs randomness to a socket at
    ~/.gnupg/entropy. Pseudo Random Number Generator Daemon (prngd), a
    /dev/urandom replacement, outputs randomness to a socket at
    /var/run/egd-pool. Source and binary packages for these are available
    at http://www.sunfreeware.com/
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.45) What are some good, easy-to-use printing solutions for Solaris?

    A writeup by Carl Ehorn, below, provides a good summary. It originally
    November 2001 appeared at
    http://groups./group/solarisonintel/message/26467

    I don't know if anyone has the same problems I did, but I recently
    went looking for a good printing solution that didn't require that I
    roll my own using Ghostscript and a bunch of scripts. I've done that
    before, and it gets old fairly quickly.

    I have a HP Deskjet 1220C, which is a color wide-carriage printer with
    fairly high resolution capabilities. It can print at 600x600 DPI color
    in normal modes, and can support up to 2400x2400 DPI color with HP
    software. However, that software only works on Win machines, and I
    don't really need that high a resolution in Solaris, as I do my
    graphics processing on Win machines anyway.

    My printer is hanging on an ethernet print-server box, which allows it
    to be shared by any machine on the network. This works very well, and
    has always worked in text modes from Solaris. But I was looking for a
    Postscript solution, so that I could print PDF files, Postscript
    files, and take advantage of some of the advanced formatting
    capabilities that Postscript provides. It's also nice to be able to
    print from a browser.

    So I took a look at what's available on the web. Of course, there is
    Ghostscript, Gimp-print, and other similar packages, but they require
    a fair amount of work to make a seamless print solution (at least on
    Solaris). So I also looked at Vividata's P-Shop, CUPS, and ESP Print
    Pro. These last three are fairly low-cost solutions for a single
    server, and I felt that the prices they charge would be acceptable to
    me, considering the time and effort they would save.

    Vividata I tried the Vividata package, and while it works fine, it did
    not support any of the higher resolution modes the printer was capable
    of. I should point out that Vividata is the only package I found that
    had Color profile management available as an option. I didn't try
    this, but it would be important if you were doing pre-press graphics
    work. Vividata had a generic driver for my printer, but had not
    updated it in some years, and does not seem to be interested in
    providing further development for the more recent printers that have
    been made. They seem to feel that if a generic PCL driver works,
    that's good enough. Vividata provides Postscript Level 2 support.

    CUPS I then tried the CUPS package, which is free on the web. There is
    a lot of support for this system from the internet community,
    including driver generators from the Gimp project. The Gimp drivers
    have been reported to provide very high quality output compared to the
    standard drivers, but require that you build and install a lot of
    dependent packages in order to make use of these better drivers.
    Again, this was looking like a lot of work to get a good package
    working, and I wanted to avoid that.

    The standard CUPS package had very disappointing output, and a generic
    install using the recommended driver resulted in solid black pages.
    Using an older, lower quality driver, I was able to obtain 300 DPI
    8-bit output. While this is OK, it's not good. 8-bit color results in
    a very noticeable dither in both color and grayscale output, and while
    the 300 DPI text output was fine, I found that some PDF files did not
    print text very well. There were artifacts, and some aliasing in the
    outlines of letters. Enabling debug output from the driver resulted in
    some very confusing data. It appeared that the PS-2-raster conversion
    was done at 100 DPI, then the raster to PCL was scaled up to 300 DPI.
    While the support staff for CUPS says that's impossible, it sure looks
    that way from the debug output, and would also explain the poor text
    quality from some applications.

    CUPS is supported by the newsgroups and some of the same folks who
    make ESP Print Pro. It supports Postscript Level 3 output.

    ESP Print Pro Last of all, I tried the ESP Print Pro package. This is
    an enhanced product based on CUPS, but has considerably more
    printer-specific drivers available, including one for my printer. It
    installs just like CUPS, and also like CUPS, is a replacement for the
    LP print system that comes with Solaris and other UNIX variants. While
    I had some misgivings about replacing the LP system, both CUPS and ESP
    Print Pro installed easily, and with no problems.

    I'm pleased to say the ESP Print Pro worked the best of all these
    packages for me. I was able to set the defaults to 600x600 DPI, using
    CMYK color modes, and got a very noticeable increase in the print
    quality. Text is crisp as any 600 DPI laser, and I printed a 24-bit
    color scan of a photograph that resulted in a very nice print. On
    plain paper, the colors are not true, but are perfectly acceptable for
    a draft print. Note that Windows also is unable to print accurate
    colors on plain paper. This is not a fault of the software, but a
    limit in the printer technology. Printing to coated photo paper would
    probably provide a much more accurate print, but I did not bother to
    test the ESP package in this mode, as I do photo work on Windows.
    HP-supplied drivers work very well in Windows, and has full support
    for the 2400 DPI mode.

    With ESP Print Pro at 600 DPI, and using the CMKY color model, the
    supplied Postscript test page printed well, and all signs of dithering
    were gone, in both color and grayscale areas of the page. Note that
    CUPS uses the same test page, so these can be compared directly to see
    the differences between the packages.

    I found that the native Imagetool program supplied with Solaris
    crashed when trying to print my 24-bit TIFF test image, but when I
    loaded the image into StarOffice's drawing program, it printed
    perfectly, scaled exactly as it should have been. StarOffice sees the
    new printing system with no problems, and will print to the default
    printer without any required setup. While I have not done much testing
    with StarOffice, I'd be surprised if it had trouble, since the TIFF
    image printed correctly. As the TIFF image was a 70MB file, this
    certainly is one of the more stressful ways to test, and I encountered
    no problems at all.

    Both CUPS and ESP Print Pro provide printer and class management using
    graphic interfaces. CUPS uses Netscape, or any GUI browser, and all
    administration tasks can be done from the browser, except for editing
    the daemon config files. ESP uses a supplied program that presents a
    GUI interface in a compact, simple to understand way, and is also easy
    to use. Like CUPS (which it is based on), it does require manual
    editing of the daemon config files. Any text editor will work fine for
    either package.

    Both CUPS and ESP Print Pro provide replacements for 'lpstat' and
    associated programs, which would very much like the old ones, but tie
    into the new driver system. Vividata's P-Shop uses the standard lp
    system, and does not replace the existing native programs. Vividata is
    the only package that I found that supports printing through SCSI
    interfaces, so if you have a SCSI printer, you should certainly look
    at their product first. They also support SCSI scanners, which neither
    CUPS or ESP Print Pro provide.

    Vividata, CUPS, and ESP Print Pro all provide "try & buy" downloads
    from the web, so you can check out any package you are interested in
    for a trial period at no cost. Vividata allowed me to download and
    install their package twice, which was nice of them. They also provide
    students will the package for free, but don't provide support on the
    free version. CUPS is also free for download, and support has been
    handed off to the community through a number of newsgroups. ESP
    provides support for a fee, which can get expensive in a corporate
    environment, but is probably in line with any other commercial package
    that provides similar features.

    Each of these packages has it's strong points, but for me the ESP
    package seems to be the best match with my needs. Your mileage may
    vary, based on your needs, the interface your printer uses, and the
    drivers available for your specific printer.

    I hope this information will save you time and trouble, and if you
    have not already installed some kind of printing solution, will
    encourage you to take advantage of these products. There seems to be
    something for every budget, and the free packages available, while not
    perfect, will at least get your printer functioning under Solaris.
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (6.46) What is the Solaris 9 Data Encryption Supplement?

    It contains kernel modules to support more flavoers of encryption for
    IPsec and Kerberos. Currently, this is AES and fish for IPSec and
    GSS-API for Kerberos. A writeup by Carl Ehorn, below, provides a good
    summary. This is available for both SPARC and Intel. It can be
    exported anywhere except Burma, Cuba, Iran, Iraq, Libya, North Korea,
    Sudan, and Syria, plus all the parties listed on the "Denied Parties
    List."

    Copyright © 1997 - 2003 Dan Anderson. All rights reserved.
    http://sun.drydog.com/faq/
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (7.0) TROUBLESHOOTING

    (7.1) What can I do if Solaris won't boot?

    You need to boot from your install CD. Insert the Solaris Software CD
    in your CDROM drive. If your CDROM drive/bios isn't bootable, first
    insert the "Device Configuration Assistant" (DCA) diskette. At the
    "Boot Solaris" menu, choose "CD."

    At the "Type of Installation: Interactive or Jumpstart" menu, type "b
    -s"

    Or, after the video configuration, network, time and date you'll
    notice one of the menu's has a button: [Exit] Select Exit and, when it
    asks you again "do you want to exit?," just say yes.

    Once you're at the UNIX root prompt #, you can mount the boot drive
    with "mount /dev/dsk/c0t0d0s0 /mnt"" and view anything wrong with the
    boot drive (omit the "t0" for ATAPI).

    [Modified from Bob Palowoda's Solaris 2.4 x86 FAQ]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (7.2) How do I restore the Solaris boot block without reinstalling?

    This may happen when installing a boot manager that comes with another
    operating system (such as LILO from Linux) or an after-market multi-OS
    boot manager. These sometimes le's active partition, which in our
    case is Solaris. Also, moving the Solaris partition with a partition
    manager program such as Partition Magic requires reinstalling the
    Solaris boot block. Before taking these steps, first verify the
    Solaris partition is active. If it isn't, just make the Solaris
    partition active and reboot. Otherwise follow the steps below.


    previous question, 7.1.


    is /dev/rdsk/c?t?d?p? where ? is the controller #, target ID, and disk
    #, and partition #. Omit "t?" for ATAPI E.g., /dev/rdsk/c0d0p0


    This is VERY important; if it's wrong, you you may hose another
    partition: prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0p0 (omit "t0" for ATAPI, always use
    p0, which means the "entire drive"). The prtvtoc prints out the map
    for the Solaris partition on the hard drive, if found. The partitions
    shown on the output are actually "slices" within the Solaris
    partition.


    /sbin/fdisk -b /usr/lib/fs/ufs/mboot (raw disk dev)

    E.g., for SCSI it might be:
    /sbin/fdisk -b /usr/lib/fs/ufs/mboot /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0p0

    (omit "t0" for ATAPI)


    The Solaris Multiple Device Boot Menu should appear after rebooting.
    If not, you can always to an upgrade (re-)install.

    Note: This procedure does NOT make your Solaris partition active again
    (sometimes needed after installing another operating system, such as
    Windows, on the same disk), it just writes to your bootblock IN your
    Solaris partition. To learn more about the Solaris boot process, read
    the boot(1M) man page.
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (7.3) What can I do during the Solaris/x86 booting sequence?

    Step #1: Boot loader

    If you have multiple partitions, the boot loader in the Solaris
    partition will come up and ask you which partition you want to boot.
    This partition must be the active partition, or at least be marked
    active by a third-party boot manager before this boot loader receives
    control (not all boot managers have this feature). If you don't answer
    in so many seconds, it boots Solaris.

    This boot manager is pretty basic. It has no customization. You can't
    change the default boot partition to one other than Solaris, you can't
    change the timeout value, and you can't change the partition
    descriptions. But it gets the job done.

    Step #2: Device Configuration Assistant (DCA)

    This will ask you to press ESC if you want to change stuff. This is to
    make up for the fact that x86 machines don't have a nice OpenBOOT chip
    to sort out REAL "Plug and Play".

    Basically, in Solaris x86, the Device Assistant seems to set up
    certain things in /boot/solaris. This is so the "real" OS has some
    common format to examine for devices, instead of having lots of nasty
    x86 hardware specific stuff. That way, Sun can keep the main OS
    somewhat hardware independent, and keep it very close to the Sparc
    version.

    The "Assistant" can actually been of assistance. If you select
    "partial scan", then "Device tasks", and then "View/Edit Devices", it
    will tell you what Solaris THINKS your devices are, and where they are
    at. Quite useful, when Solaris gets completely lost, and you're
    wondering if it's your fault, or what.

    Otherwise, it can give you a warm fuzzy feeling, if you select "Full
    Scan", and you see all your devices properly recognized.

    Step #3: OS Boot

    Well, actually, the "Boot Assistant". The interface is similar, but
    not identical, to SPARC Solaris' OpenBoot 'boot' command. The main
    differences I notice are:

    * It's "b -r", not "boot -r", if you want to force reconfiguration.
    Why would you want to do that? Well sometimes, if your devices
    have changed a LITTLE, you might want to do this. You can also
    invoke it with a "touch /reconfigure" as root before rebooting.
    * You don't have nice device aliases like you do with Sparc
    hardware. That being said, if you do nothing, it should autoboot
    into the actual OS in a few seconds. Or you can type something
    quickly within 5 seconds, and force a "reconfiguration boot", as
    mentioned earlier.
    * The "Driver Assistant" or whatever, really looks for major
    changes, like adding or removing a card. However, if, say, you add
    another disk drive, you'll probably want to just do "b -r". Note
    that the Device Assistant will itself trigger a "b -r", after it
    has autodetected hardware changes.

    Step #4: The Main OS: Solaris

    You made it (I hope)!. Hopefully, you should now see a line with
    "SunOS5.8" or similar in it, and a little twirly text character
    spinner starting. You are now really in the classic Solaris
    environment. From here on in, your experience is almost identical to
    your brethren who work with SPARC Sun equipment.

    To learn more about the the Solaris boot process, read the boot(1M)
    man page.

    [Thanks to Phil at http://www.bolthole.com/solaris/]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (7.4) How do I logon as root if the password doesn't work anymore?

    Regaining control of a Solaris x86 system where the root password has
    been lost can be accomplished by the following steps. Note that any
    savvy user can do this with the proper CD-ROM and diskette. Therefore,
    of course, physical security of a system is important for machines
    containing sensitive data.
    1. Insert installation boot diskette and installation CD-ROM for
    Solaris x86.
    2. Boot system from the installation floppy and select the CD-ROM as
    the boot device.
    3. Type "b -s" (instead of typing 1 or 2 from the menu) and it'll
    drop you straight to a root shell, #, (and you'll be in
    single-user mode).
    4. At the root prompt, #, key in the following commands, which will
    create a directory called hdrive under the /tmp directory and then
    mount the root hard drive partition under this temporary
    directory.
    mkdir /tmp/hdrive
    mount /dev/dsk/c0t0d0s0 /tmp/hdrive #SCSI; for ATAPI, omit "t0"
    5. To use the vi editor, the TERM variable must be defined. Key in
    the following commands.
    TERM=at386
    export TERM
    6. Start vi (or some other editor) and load /tmp/hdrive/etc/shadow
    file:
    vi /tmp/hdrive/etc/shadow
    7. Change the first line of the shadow file that has the root entry
    to:
    root::6445::::::
    8. Write and quit the vi editor with the "!" override command:
    :wq!
    9. Halt the system, remove the floppy installation diskette, and
    reboot the system:
    halt

    from the Console Login: as root with no password. Just hit enter
    for the password.

    root password and secure the system.

    [Thanks to Lynn R. Francis, Texas State Technical College]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (7.5) My licensed software fails because the host ID is 0. What's
    wrong?

    Intel processor machines don't have an IDPROM, so Sun generates a
    serial number, hostid command or sysinfo()'s SI_HW_SERIAL,
    pseudo-randomly during installation. The number is stored in
    /kernel/misc/sysinit, whose only function, it appears, is to provide
    the serial number. If serialization information is tampered or sysinit
    fails to load, the host ID will be 0. If you reinstall Solaris,
    sysinit will be regenerated and your host ID will change. So be
    careful about reinstalling Solaris if you have licensed software that
    depends on your host ID. Backup your sysinit file.

    To preserve the same ID (and therefore licenses), copy file
    /kernel/misc/sysinit to the replacement system. I understand the Sun
    Workshop/Sun ONE compiler manual says this is allowed twice per
    calendar year (please verify this yourself).

    For more information, see the Sun NVRAM/hostid FAQ, available at
    http://www.squirrel.com/squirrel/sun-nvram-hostid.faq.html and
    elsewhere. This also has tools to fake hostids.
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (7.6) How can I fix Netscape Communicator to render fonts correctly on
    S/x86?

    This problem occurs with Solaris 2.6 and Netscape Communicator 4.0x,
    and has since been fixed. Apply patch 106248, which I'm told fixes
    this problem. A workaround is to add the following two lines to your
    ~/.xinitrc file:

    xset +fp /usr/openwin/lib/X11/fonts/75dpi/
    xset fp rehash

    Another workaround, if you don't have these fonts, is to go into
    Netscape Preferences and change the font faces.

    [Thank's to Alan Orndorff, Jeffrey Cook, and John Riddoch]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (7.7) Why doesn't Netscape run as root?

    This is a bug in Netscape. Due to a Netscape 4.x bug (it thrashes the
    $HOME environment variable) the X11 library cannot find root's
    ..Xauthority file in the root dir unless your current directory is /.

    Large, complex programs (especially those taking input from & to the
    Internet) should not be run as root. Experienced users and
    Administrators run as root only for essential sysadmin tasks.

    If you must run as root, try one of these tricks:
    * Make sure you run Netscape with a current directory of / (so that
    the relative pathname '.Xauthority' works)
    * Or start Netscape with HOME="/." (so that Netscape doesn't thrash
    the $HOME variable)
    * Or start Netscape with an environment variable
    XAUTHORITY="/.Xauthority"

    [Thanks to Juergen Keil via John Groenveld]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (7.8) I moved my PCI host adapter to another slot and the system won't
    boot!

    Don't move the adapter. It isn't a supported feature in Solaris and
    isn't easy to recover from. If you have any choice in the matter, move
    the controller back to it original slot.

    The PCI device number is part of the device's basic ID, including its
    child disks. If you change slots, you've effectively removed that
    controller and its disks, and added an unrelated controller and disks.
    You need to fix up all of the references to the old disks to point to
    the new disks.

    I've never come up with any strategy better than "boot, observe
    failure, fix failure, reboot" for recovering from this kind of change.
    For simple cases (single controller, in particular) it can be helpful
    to clear /dev/dsk/* and /dev/rdsk/* and run "disks", but that is
    perilous too.

    Incidentally, changing motherboards is likely to trip exactly this
    problem, because motherboards generally number their slots
    differently.

    To conclude, it's difficult and dangerous, and the general guidelines
    involves fixing:

    1. /etc/vfstab or /dev or both
    2. /devices to match one another
    3. possibly removing lines from /etc/path_to_inst in order to make
    the right /devices nodes show up

    The ultimate goal is to get back the same controller numbers as
    before.

    [Sun FAQ 2576-02 at
    http://access1.Sun.COM/cgi-bin/rinfo2html?257602.faq]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (7.9) Why is Solaris always booting into the Device Configuration
    Assistant (DCA)?

    This is usually caused by one of the following:
    * You installed Solaris onto a disk other than the primary boot
    disk.
    * You didn't remove your DCA boot diskette or if you didn't remove
    your installation CD-ROM if it's in a bootable CD-ROM drive.
    * File /boot/solaris/bootenv.rc is corrupt or truncated, usually
    after a hard reboot or reset. This file is setup and used by DCA.
    It should contain several lines.

    To change or set your default boot device, See Sun FAQ 2271-02 at
    http://access1.Sun.COM/cgi-bin/rinfo2html?227102.faq for
    instructions. To summarize:
    * From the "Boot Solaris" screen, press F4 (Boot Tasks).
    * On the "Boot Tasks" screen, press Enter to place an "X" in front
    of "View/Edit Autoboot Settings."
    * In the "View/Edit Autoboot Settings" screen, note that the Default
    Boot Device will not be set to any valid device. Place an "X" in
    front of Set Default Boot Device and press F2 (Continue).
    * On the Set Default Boot Device screen, place an X in front of the
    correct disk and press F2 (Continue).
    * Arrow up to the Accept Settings and press Enter to mark with an
    "X". Press F2 (Continue) to return to the Boot Tasks screen.
    * Press F3 (Back). It will load appropriate drivers after which you
    will be at the Boot Solaris screen. Press F2 (Continue) to
    continue booting.
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (7.10) What is the equivalent of STOP-A for Solaris Intel?
     
    of >the SUN and on a x86 it's a different thing (BIOS) Unlike Solaris
    on Sparc (where STOP-A gets you the OpenBoot prompt), there is no PROM
    firmware to drop into on x86. You can boot your system under kadb and
    then use a similar keystroke to drop into kadb and obtain debugging
    information. To boot under kadb, type eeprom boot-file=kadb and then:
    * Prior to Solaris 8, type CTRL-ALT-d to jump into kadb
    * On Solaris 8 or later, type F1-a to jump into kadb
    * At the Solaris Intel Boot Assistant prompt type "b kadb"

    You can then type, for example:
    $<systemdump
    to force your system to panic and generate a crash dump (the
    equivalent of "sync" at the ok prompt on SPARC).

    The Device Configuration Assistant (DCA) portion of the Intel boot
    process can be interrupted by hitting escape (when prompted). This (I
    feel) is the Intel version of the Boot Prom Monitor. Of course, all
    the commands cannot be equated apples to apples because of the
    hardware differences!

    If your console is a terminal, you can type "shift-break" or
    "ctrl-break" or "ctrl-\" (ctrl-backslash) or "<enter>" followed by "~"
    and "ctrl-break" on Solaris Sparc, but this, too, is not available for
    Solaris Intel.

    With Solaris 8 SPARC (but not Intel), there's a new feature to allow
    keyboard sequences to generate a break (bug 4147705). The 3-character
    sequence is <RETURN>, ~ (tilde), ^b. Each character must be entered
    between 0.5 to 2 seconds. This is enabled with the "kbd -a alternate"
    command.

    Similarly a soft reset is <RETURN>, ~ (tilde), cntl-shift-R, XIR is
    <RETURN>, ~ (tilde), cntl-shift-X, and Power Cycle is <RETURN>, ~
    (tilde), cntl-shift-P, I believe these commands are also available
    only on SPARC.

    [Thanks to Ramit Luthra and Mike Shapiro]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (7.11) How can I reboot Solaris x86 without it asking me to to "press
    a key" before rebooting?

    This works for me, become root and type: "shutdown -i6 -g0 -y". Or:
    "init 6 This is most useful when the system is remote with no console
    keyboard access.

    [Thanks to Charles J. Fisher]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (7.12) Help! I'm stuck in the "Boot Assistant" and can't boot. What do
    I do?

    If you get a message similar to: Run Error: File not found. could not
    run s You probably typed "reboot -- -s" or "reboot -- -r" or similar.
    This works for Solaris SPARC, but not for Solaris on Intel--it's
    disastrous. It changes your "boot-file" eeprom variable to "-s", which
    errors out and puts you in an endless loop in B oot Assistant.

    To undo this, type the following at the Boot Assistant prompt: "b
    kernel/unix" This boots with file /platform/i86/kernel/unix. If this
    doesn't help, your filesystem may be hosed. In that case, you have to
    reinstall. But make sure this is the case first.
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (7.13) Help! I get error 2 or error 8 while applying patches. What do
    I do?

    Don't do anything. Error 2 means you already have the same or newer
    code. Error 8 means you can't patch some optional packages that
    haven't been installed, even if you did "everything plus OEM" during
    the original installation. Other errors, usually from lack of disk
    space, are explained in the patchadd(1M) man page.

    [Thanks to Paul Karagianis]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (7.14) How do I prevent kdmconfig from running on boot up when I know
    my keyboard, display, and mouse configuration has not changed?

    Mike of Sun has this response (9/2002):

    I recognized this as a bug that was fixed a while back, for one
    instance with older ATI cards. I mentioned it to the video developer
    that fixed the ATI bug and he mentioned that there is a workaround if
    you see this:

    This problem occurs with certain hardware (keyboards, mice, video
    devices). During booting, a checksum is calculated based on some info
    obtained for each device. The checksum is compared to a checksum
    recorded in the OWconfig file. If the checksums don't match, kdmconfig
    thinks the device may have changed, and asks the user to check it.

    On systems that exhibit this problem, the device info that is
    checksummed seems to change from boot to boot even though no hardware
    has changed. I've seen this happen with some old ATI video cards and
    some keyboards.

    The easy workaround for the problem is to run kdmconfig and test and
    accept the desired configuration by clicking on the "Yes" button of
    the test display. Then edit the last line of the OWconfig file in
    /etc/openwin/server/etc. Change the "1" to "2", so that is says:
    TestedByUser="2"; This will cause kdmconfig to ignore checksum
    differences.

    [Thanks to Mike Riley]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (7.15) I get this error message: "can't get local host's domain name"
    or "The local host's domain name hasn't been set." What do I do?

    This is a NIS message. The easiest way to fix it is to type the
    following as root:
    domainname abc.com; domainname >/etc/defaultdomain
    (replace abc.com with your NIS domain name, which is usually the same
    as the DNS domain name).

    Copyright © 1997 - 2003 Dan Anderson. All rights reserved.
    http://sun.drydog.com/faq/
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (8.0) X Windows

    (8.1) How do I find a Solaris video driver for my graphics card?

    First look in the HCL for your release of Solaris to see if your
    graphics card is supported. If it's not listed, look for a driver from
    these sources:
    * http://developers.Sun.COM/ may have newer drivers for your
    release
    * Some video drivers are bundled (hidden) with Recommended Update
    Patches. For example, NVideo video driver, which supports
    everything from TNT's to GeF4's, is in the Solaris 8 Recommended
    Updates.
    * Consider 3rd party drivers from XiGraphics,
    http://www.xig.com/, especially recommended if you have a laptop.
    * As an alternative, you can also use the XFree86 Video Drivers
    Porting Kit, which is actually easier to use than you may think.
    See the question below on the video drivers and porting kit.
    * Finally, if all else fails, see the question below on installing
    XFree86 on Solaris. Personally, it's a lot easier to use a card
    supported by Xsun than to install XFree86.

    During installation, if you have a unsupported video card, be sure to
    bypass kdmconfig with the F4 key. Also, install with the "1 of 2" CD
    instead of the Webstart CD.

    [Thanks to Paul Karagianis for NVida info]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (8.2)How can I use a XFree86 video driver with XSun?

    You can download the Solaris XFree86 Video Drivers and Porting Kit
    from Sun at
    http://developers.Sun.COM/solaris/developer/support/driver/tools/
    video/video-index.html The porting kit allows you to use XFree86 video
    drivers for Sun's standard XSun server for Solaris x86. The porting
    kit is not supported by Sun.

    How easy is it to use the porting kit? I haven't had the need to use
    it, but here's a quote from Johanna Doran's email to me:

    I just want to offer another EASIER alternative solution for getting
    XFree86 to work with Solaris: the Sun Video Drivers and Porting Kit. I
    was a complete newbie when I went and installed Solaris on my Intel
    box, only to find my monitor was not supported. I made SEVERAL
    unsuccessful attempts to install the XFree86 drivers. Finally I ran
    into someone who worked at Sun who said to try the porting kit. Got it
    on the FIRST try. You download, un-zip the files, install two patches
    and two packages, go to kdmconfig and voila! all the XFree drivers
    appear. If none of the drivers are for your card, select the VESA
    option and it works for MOST common monitors. If I had seen this
    Porting Kit before and knew how EASY it was to install, I wouldn't
    have gone through having to re-install Solaris. I mean EASY.
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (8.3) How do I install XFree86 on Solaris?

    Why would you want to? Usually because the standard XSun server
    doesn't support your graphics board or doesn't support the color depth
    or resolution you wish to have or you may want OpenGL support
    (available only with the Sparc version of XSun). If board support is
    the only problem, please see the question above on video drivers.

    Here's some notes for installing XFree86 on Solaris x86.
    http://www.xfree86.org/3.3.6/SOLX86.html

    As a final hint, get and read the HOWTOs and books that were written
    for XFree86 on Linux.

    Starting with Solaris 2.6, Sun changed the way X client communicates
    with X server when both the client and X server are on the local
    machine (DISPLAY variable is set to ":0"). In short, instead of using
    /tmp/.X11-unix, the client connects to the X server using
    /tmp/.X11-pipe. Since XFree86 doesn't support /tmp/.X11-pipe, CDE will
    not work out-of-the-box on the local display under the XFree86 server.

    If you added virtual terminals (mentioned elsewhere in this FAQ and
    only possible with Solaris 2.4 to 7), you must leave one VT open
    (usually VT07); otherwise XFree86 will not run.

    To install and configure XFree86:
    * Download binaries for Solaris (Intel platform) from
    ftp://ftp.xfree86.org/pub/XFree86/
    * Check your platform and OS: sh Xinstall.sh -check
    * Install XFree86 with: sh Xinstall.sh
    * After the installation is complete, create your own XF86Config
    file: XFree86 -configure
    * Remove or rename your old X server: cd /usr/openwin/bin; mv X
    X.old
    * Link to your new X server: ln -s /usr/X11R6/bin/X
    /usr/openwin/bin/X
    * Copy the default dt configuration: mkdir -p /etc/dt/config; cp
    /usr/dt/config/Xservers /etc/dt/config
    * Edit /etc/dt/config/Xservers to cause dtlogin to start XFree86
    instead of Xsun next time it loads. CDE will still run with
    XFree86:
    # :0 Local local_uidconsole root /usr/openwin/bin/Xsun :0 -nobanner
    unix:0 Local local_uidconsole root /usr/X11R6/bin/X :0 -depth 16
    For 24-bit displays, "-depth 16" should be changed to "-depth 24".
    For 8-bit displays, omit "-depth 16". Use "unix:0" to cause
    dtlogin to set the DISPLAY variable to local sessions instead of
    ":0.0" and CDE will be able to connect to the local X server. For
    older XFree 3.x, use "-bpp" instead of "-depth" (which is used for
    4.x).
    * Edit /XF86Config.new and change /dev/mouse to /dev/kdmouse and
    "auto" to "PS/2" (if appropriate): under section "Pointer" (or
    "InputDevice"):
    Section "InputDevice" # Older versions of XFree86 use "Pointer"
    Identifier "Mouse1"
    Driver "mouse"
    Option "Protocol" "PS/2" # "auto" for PNP mice
    Option "Device" "/dev/kdmouse" # or "/dev/mouse"
    EndSection
    For USB mice, use something similar to the following:
    Section "InputDevice"
    Identifier "Mouse1"
    Driver "mouse"
    Option "Protocol" "VUID" # For USB mice
    Option "Device" "/dev/mouse"
    EndSection
    * To test the server , run XFree86 -xf86config XF86Config.new
    * If it works: cd /etc/X11; mv XF86Config XF86Config.old; cp
    XF86Config.new XF86Config
    * After X server configuration is done, /usr/sbin/reboot. This
    verifies startup works OK.

    Optional step. Once the above is working, you may add fonts from the
    /usr/openwin/lib/X11/fonts/ directory to the default font path for
    XFree86 server. Edit /etc/XF86Config file and add this to section
    "Files":
    FontPath "/usr/openwin/lib/X11/fonts/F3bitmaps/"
    FontPath "/usr/openwin/lib/X11/fonts/Type1/"
    FontPath "/usr/openwin/lib/X11/fonts/Speedo/"
    FontPath "/usr/openwin/lib/X11/fonts/misc/"
    FontPath "/usr/openwin/lib/X11/fonts/75dpi/"
    FontPath "/usr/openwin/lib/X11/fonts/100dpi/"

    Aliases for CDE fonts are in the F3bitmaps directory, so you'll need
    at least this line. [Warning: I have a report that adding the Openwin
    fonts to the XFree86 server, as recommended here, could cause dtlogin
    to fail.]

    For those that use S3 Virge cards, it seems that SVGA server (the
    default server for Virge cards) has problems with some chipsets. Try
    using an old S3V server instead. Also, the problem with returning from
    graphics to text mode seems to be present on all three servers I tried
    (Xsun, SVGA and S3V).

    [Thanks to Aleksandar Milivojevic, Jimmy Chang, Philip Brown, and
    Joerg Niethammer]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (8.4) How do I configure 64K colors for CDE?

    Solaris' kdmconfig offers only a choice of 256 or 16M colors for your
    graphics board. To configure Xsun to use 16-bit color, configure using
    kdmconfig for the desired resolution in 256 color mode. Note the board
    line from file /etc/openwin/server/etc/OWconfig. Look in the
    referenced file in directory
    /usr/openwin/share/etc/devdata/SUNWaccel/boards to see if there is
    support for 16-bit color mode for your card.

    If your board is listed, edit file /etc/openwin/server/etc/OWconfig
    and change defdepth="8" to defdepth="16" in it. Also, values for
    MaxPClk for some cards are way too low in 16-bit and 24-bit modes in
    file /usr/openwin/share/etc/devdata/SUNWaccel/boards. But if you want
    to change this, you are doing it on your own risk. Some applications
    hang on 16-bit colors.

    The CDE logo that is displayed after one logs in is a bit-mapped
    grayscale image(?!), but everything else should work just fine.

    [Thanks to Aleksandar Milivojevic, by way of John Groenveld]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (8.5) How do I Add GNOME, KDE or other non-CDE Window Mangers to the
    dtlogin screen?

    The easiest way is to add substitute KDE for CDE is to add an "exec
    /path/to/kde" statement in your $HOME/.dtprofile file.

    To add a KDE selection to the dtlogin screen (in addition to the usual
    command-line, OpenWindows, or CDE choices), follow one or both of
    these links:
    * http://www.tiem.utk.edu/~peek/solaris/ written by Michael
    Peek
    * http://twirl.mcc.ac.uk/~zzassgl/wm.html written by Geoff Lane

    The instructions are for fvwm, but apply to any window manager, such
    as KDE, AfterStep, WindowMaker, or Enlightenment. Be aware that these
    new WMs usually take a bigger memory footprint.
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (8.6) Where can I get GNOME or KDE packages for Solaris/x86?

    GNOME (and KDE) are available with the Companion CD for the 10/00
    update of Solaris 8. It's also available on the web for download.

    For information about GNOME on Solaris or for a free download, see
    http://www.sun.com/gnome/ Another source for (separately built)
    packages for GNOME and GNOME extras is at
    http://myweb.clark.net/pub/bent/Solaris8-X86/GNOME/ For
    information on GNOME, see http://www.gnome.org/

    For general KDE information, see http://www.kde.org/ Binaries are
    at
    ftp://ftp.kde.org/pub/kde/stable/latest/distribution/pkg/Solaris/
    8.0/x86 and at mirrors elsewhere (see
    http://www.kde.org/mirrors.html). When installing KDE, make sure
    to install the QT library first, which is required by KDE.

    Which is better? "Religious" wars could be fought over this question.
    KDE has a more familiar M$ windows-like interface, and I used to use
    it. I use GNOME now since it's most easily available on both Solaris
    and Linux. KDE is more mature than GNOME and more tightly integrated,
    but some say GNOME is catching up. GNOME and Mozilla both use the GTK
    library. The QT library, required by KDE, used to have stricter
    licensing restrictions, but now it's licensed under GPL (not LGPL).
    KDE is endorsed and supported by IBM, Caldera, and SuSE. GNOME is
    endorsed and supported by Sun (and RedHat and HP). I recommend
    installing and trying out both GNOME and KDE for a test drive. You can
    have both installed at the same time and select which one to use with
    dtlogin. You can also run KDE apps under GNOME and vice versa.

    Sun picked GNOME over KDE because of Qt licensing issues, CORBRA in
    GNOME, and because GNOME uses C and KDE uses C++ (the latter causes
    name mangling problems which prevents using different C++ compilers).
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (8.7) Are TrueType fonts supported in Solaris?

    Yes, Xsun supports them. Use the Font Administrator GUI,
    /usr/dt/bin/sdtfontadm, to add them to the server's list of fonts.

    [Thanks to Tran Tran]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (8.8) How do I make XFree86 version 3.x- or XiG Xaccel 5.0.3- work
    with Solaris 8?

    You can't. X servers for previous versions of Solaris rely on /dev/vt*
    virtual terminals, which have been of end-of-life-ed in Solaris 8 (see
    an earlier question). You'll get an error message similar to:
    xf86OpenConsole: Cannot determine current VT. You must upgrade to
    XFree86 version 4.x or better which is currently (7/2000) available
    only in source. XiG released 5.0.4 as a binary patch for its
    commercial X server. See http://www.xfree86.org/ and
    http://www.xig.com/

    [Thanks to John Groenveld]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (8.9) How do I disable CDE auto-start upon booting multi-user?

    Boot single-user and run dtconfig(1). That is, at the booting Solaris
    prompt, type "b -s" After entering your root password, mount /usr and
    run "/usr/dt/bin/dtconfig -d"

    [Thanks to John Groenveld]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (8.10) How do I su(1) to another user and run an X application?

    You need to set your $DISPLAY and allow others to use your console. If
    you don't, you get a message like "Can't open display". By default,
    only the user who logged in on console can connect to the display.

    To allow another user to connect there are two ways - one easy and one
    secure (unfortunately, you can't have both):

    Easy: As user logged in on console run "xhost +LOCAL:" (This gives
    permission to connect to the display to anyone logged in on the
    machine - this includes being able to open windows, read your
    keystrokes, send keystrokes, etc. Obviously not a good idea if you
    have other users on the system you don't trust completely.) As any
    other user logged in on the box, run "setenv DISPLAY :0" or
    "DISPLAY=:0; export DISPLAY", depending on your shell type. This all
    assumes you're connecting from the same host, for a remote host,
    change to "xhost +other-hostname" and "setenv DISPLAY
    PutYourHostnameHere:0"

    Safe: As user logged in on console run "xauth list" Look for the line
    for your hostname followed by ":0" and copy it. As the user you want
    to grant access to run "xauth" and at the xauth> prompt type "add "
    and paste the line you copied. Now "setenv DISPLAY hostname:0", making
    sure you match the way it was listed in the line you copied and
    pasted.

    Easier variation of safe method for special cases: If the other user
    you want to access your screen is root, and your home directory is
    either local or on an NFS filesystem exported with root permissions,
    just have root do this:
    setenv XAUTHORITY /home/myuserid/.Xauthority ; setenv DISPLAY :0
    (replace "/home/myuserid" with your actual home directory).

    [Thanks to Alan Coopersmith]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (8.11) Does Solaris Intel support multiple heads?

    No. A commercial X server from Xi graphics, http://www.xig.com/
    supports multiple heads.

    Dual-headed monitors will be built-in Solaris 8's Xsun (Xinerama,
    X11R6.4), but that works on Sparc only, not Intel.

    XFree86 does not currently support multiple heads, though the feature
    is on the wish list for XFree86-4.

    [Thanks to John Groenveld, Alan Coopersmith]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (8.12) How do I get my 2-button mouse to emulate 3 buttons?

    In Solaris 8, "kdmconfig" will autodetect a two-button PS/2 mouse, so
    you may never look in the "change pointing device" section. You need
    to go in there, and change it from "PS/2 Mouse (2 Button)" to "PS/2
    Mouse (2 Button+100ms 3 Button Emulation)"

    [Thanks to Philip Brown]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (8.13) How do I make the NumLock key go on automatically when I log
    in?

    Add xset led 2 to your CDE startup file, $HOME/.dtprofile. To turn it
    off, use xset -led 2 Similarly, for CapsLock, use xset led 4

    To make settings apply to all users, add to file
    /etc/dt/config/.dtprofile
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (8.14)How do I get admintool(1M) and some other Solaris GUI's to run
    with XFree86?

    Some applications are configured to use Sun's proprietary F3 fonts.
    The work-around is to run Sun font server, xfs(1), and to prefix
    XFree86's FontPath with it.

    Copyright © 1997 - 2003 Dan Anderson. All rights reserved.
    http://sun.drydog.com/faq/
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (9.0) INTEROPERABILITY WITH OTHER OPERATING SYSTEMS

    (9.1) Can I install Solaris x86 on a system that already has MS
    Windows 9x/ME/NT/2K/XP (among other systems)?

    When you run the 2.6 install program, it will ask you which partition
    you wish to use. On disk1, all you need to do is to create another
    partition on your existing disk. You can use Solaris boot manager to
    boot Solaris x86, and MS Windows 9x/ME/NT/2K/XP (among other systems).

    To shrink an existing MS-DOS/MS Windows partition, if you need to make
    room, use something like Partition Magic.

    Problems have been reported inter-working with OS/2, however.
    Reportedly, the order in which you install things is very important.
    Solaris doesn't "share" computers and partitions really well. If you
    have problems, you may need to install Solaris first, on a partition
    towards the end, reinstall the boot manager and add the partition.

    Other options for booting is to use System Commander (see question
    below), IBM's Boot Manager (bundled with Partition Magic or OS/2),
    FreeBSD's OS-BS (see question below), System Selector, or
    OS-BootSelect (open source), instead of the Solaris' Boot Manager.

    Mariusz Zynel has a detailed information on booting Solaris with other
    operating systems at http://math.uwb.edu.pl/~mariusz/multiboot/

    [Thanks to Barry Katz, Brandon Hume, Joseph A. Faracchio, Joelle
    Nebbe, Eugeny Kuzakov, and Sean M. Kelley]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (9.2) How can I use MS Windows' NT/2K Loader to boot Solaris/x86?

    The general idea is that you copy the first sector of your native root
    Solaris/x86 partition into a file in the DOS/MS Windows NT/2K
    partition. Assuming you name that file something like c:\bootsect.sun
    (inspired by c:\bootsect.dos) you can edit file c:\boot.ini (after
    saving boot.ini to boot.old): to come up with something like this:

    [boot loader]
    timeout=30
    default=multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(1)\WINNT
    [operating systems]
    multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(1)\WINNT="Windows NT"
    multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(1)partition(1)C:\BOOTSECT.SUN ="Solaris/x86"
    C:\="DOS"

    The "multi(0)" means that it's an ATAPI drive and so for the ATAPI
    drives, the "disk(0)" is ignored. The "rdisk(1)partition(1)" means
    Solaris is on the first partition of the second drive on the first IDE
    channel.

    This procedure assumes that DOS and NT have been installed onto the
    first ATAPI disk and Solaris/x86 or whatever have been onto the second
    disk (use scsi(0) and place the SCSI ID in disk(x) for SCSI drives).
    Note that in order to use the Windows NT boot loader, the NT partition
    must be the active boot partition. Solaris/x86 must also be the active
    boot partition, so must reside on another disk (This may be another
    reason to use a commercial product, System Commander--see question
    below).

    In Solaris, mount a DOS-formatted floppy (if you've converted C: to
    NTFS, which isn't readable from Solaris/x86) or a HD FAT partition
    (see question below), under, say, /mnt. Type:

    dd if=/dev/rdsk/c0d0p0 of=/mnt/bootsect.sun bs=512 count=1
    # (Note: The above is for ATAPI; use /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0p0 for SCSI.)

    If the Solaris partition is on a separate drive (as in this example),
    you need to modify file bootsect.sun to tell it the boot drive. The
    instructions below are for Solaris 7 or earlier The bootsect.sun code
    assumes the drive ID is preloaded into the x86 DL register before the
    bootsect.sun is executed. This is done by the BIOS, but not the NT
    loader. The easiest way to fix this is to modify the bootsect.sun code
    with a binary file editor. The first instruction is a jump over the
    next 4 bytes, the ASCII version ID ("P2.0" in this case). Use a binary
    editor to overwrite this with a "MOV DL,0x81" instruction and some
    NOPs. I.e., I changed the first six bytes in my bootsect.sun from "eb
    04 50 32 2e 30" to "b2 81 90 90 90 90" (in hex) and saved it in file
    bootsect.sun. Another person's bootsector began with eb 79 . . . and
    he changed the first 4 bytes to b2 81 eb 77 to get it to work. Some
    useful drive IDs are: 0x00 for the floppy drive, 0x80 for the 1st hard
    drive, and 0x81 for the 2nd hard drive.

    Reboot into NT. Copy the bootsect.sun file from the floppy to C:\, if
    you haven't done so yet. Modify the DOS/NT attributes (permissions) on
    boot.ini with:

    attrib -s -r c:\boot.ini

    Edit to add the appropriate entries from the example boot.ini above,
    and restore the system and read-only file attributes:
    attrib +s +r c:\boot.ini

    An alternative to the Solaris "dd" command above is to use the
    "postcard-ware" program BootPart 2.2 from
    http://www.winimage.com/bootpart.htm. E.g., the following
    displays the partitions, then creates a boot sector file bootsect.sun
    and adds "Solaris" to the NT loader menu. Edit bootsect.sun as above.

    C:> bootpart.exe
    C:> bootpart.exe 1 bootsect.sun Solaris

    [Thanks to Krejcarek Brian Grant, Louis Lam, Matt Gillen, and Indego
    Thorn]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (9.3) How can I use the Solaris boot manager to boot Windows NT?

    1. Create 3 PRIMARY partitions on the disk in the following order
    1. DOS FAT
    2. DOS FAT (to become NTFS)
    3. empty (to become Solaris)
    2. install DOS (or MS Windows 9x/ME/NT/2K/XP) on Partition 1
    3. Then install NT on partition 2, converting to NTFS while
    installing
    4. Finally, install Solaris 2.6 on partition 3 using Solaris
    interactive.

    Solaris boot manager will be the master boot controller, but then
    choose partition 1 to boot NT (yes that is right, not 2). Then the NT
    boot manager will come to life, allowing you to select either DOS
    (partition 1) or NT (partition 2). Note that Solaris must be the
    active partition when its booting.

    [Thanks to Claude Dumas]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (9.4) How can I use System Commander to boot Solaris/x86 and other
    systems?

    To use System Commander to dual boot both Win NT and Solaris, make
    these two configuration changes to System Commander:


    all other partitions from NT and Solaris (so they can't see each
    other's partitions).


    1. From main System Commander menu pick ALT-S.
    2. select "Global Settings" but *DO NOT* press enter.
    3. press "ALT-F9" which brings up an internal configuration menu.
    4. Change the "Clear Items" menu choice from "MEMORY" to "NO" or
    "NONE".
    5. press ESC to return to main menu.
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (9.5) Can I install Linux and Solaris on the same drive?

    Yes, with certain precautions. Be especially careful with RedHat Linux
    6.1 (see below) Unfortunately, both Solaris/x86 and Linux swap
    partitions use the same ID, 0x82. So if you install Solaris on a drive
    with a Linux swap partition already on it, it will install on the
    Linux swap partition. You have two choices:


    swap partition if you have enough memory).


    latter, the install program will probably ask if you want to format
    what it thinks is your Linux swap partition (and is actually your
    Solaris partition) as a swap file. Be sure to not do this!

    Red Hat Linux 6.1 (October 1999)

    Red Hat Linux 6.1's installer automatically uses all Linux swap
    partitions on all drives. Since Solaris/x86 uses the same ID, the
    installer overwrites it too! This is not a problem with older versions
    of RedHat Linux (as long as Linux and Solaris were on separate
    drives).

    Personally I don't use the installer to upgrade (I just install
    individual RPMs).

    Here's the summary from Red Hat Gotchas,
    http://www.redhat.com/support/docs/gotchas/6.1/gotchas-6.1-4.html#ss4.
    12

    Problem: Installation of Red Hat Linux 6.1 can overwrite Solaris. If
    you have Solaris Intel on your machine, you will have problems with
    Red Hat Linux 6.1

    Fix: Solaris partitions use the same type as Linux swap partitions.
    The installer will use all found swap partitions.

    Currently, there are several possible work-arounds to this problem. If
    Solaris is on a separate drive from the drive you wish to install Red
    Hat Linux 6.1 on, please disconnect this drive.

    The other workaround is to change the "Partition type" of the Solaris
    partition. Before you install Red Hat Linux to another type, install
    Red Hat Linux, and then change the type back to another type. This can
    be accomplished by going using expert mode and choosing fdisk over
    disk druid.

    # fdisk /dev/hda

    Command (m for help): p

    Disk /dev/hda: 255 heads, 63 sectors, 784 cylinders
    Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 bytes

    Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
    /dev/hda1 * 1 345 2771181 83 Linux
    /dev/hda2 346 784 3526267+ 5 Extended
    /dev/hda5 346 751 3261163+ 83 Linux
    /dev/hda6 752 784 265041 82 Linux swap

    Command (m for help): t
    Partition number (1-6): 6
    Hex code (type L to list codes): 08
    Command (m for help): w

    After the install you can change the partition type to back 0x82 so
    that Solaris will boot.

    This "gotcha" was removed from the RedHat 6.2 list, so hopefully the
    problem doesn't occur with newer versions of RedHat Linux. For more
    information, see the Linux HOWTOs and LILO User Guide. For information
    on installing Solaris/x86 on your second hard drive, see below.
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (9.6) How can I use GRUB to boot Solaris/x86?

    Here's an example for GRUB's, a GNU bootloader popular with Linux. To
    use, add something like this to file /boot/grub/grub.conf:
    title Solaris 9
    rootnoverify (hd0,1)
    chainloader +1
    makeactive
    boot

    Numbers are relative to zero for GRUB. That means "hd0, 1" is the
    first hard disk's second partition. "makeactive" tells GRUB to make
    the Solaris partition active before booting, as Solaris won't boot if
    it's partition isn't the active partition.

    For more information on this and other boot loaders, see
    http://multiboot.solaris-x86.org/

    [Thanks to Mariusz Zynel]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (9.7) How can I use LILO to boot Solaris/x86 on the primary slave
    ATAPI?

    Basically, the Linux LILO boot loader is used to fool Solaris into
    thinking the slave is the master and vice versa by remapping the BIOS
    drive numbers (with the map-drive and to lines) Here's an example
    entry in a /etc/lilo.conf file:
    # /etc/lilo.conf
    boot=/dev/hda
    map=/boot/map
    install=/boot/boot.b
    prompt
    timeout=50

    other=/dev/hdb1
    label=Solaris
    table=/dev/hdb
    map-drive=0x80
    to=0x81
    map-drive=0x81
    to=0x80

    (use /dev/hdc instead of /dev/hdb if your second drive is the
    secondary ATAPI master instead of the primary ATAPI slave drive). For
    more information, see the Linux HOWTOs and LILO User Guide.

    [Thanks to David Uhring and Loran Marjanski]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (9.8) How can I use OS-BS or System Selector to boot Solaris/x86?

    Grab OS-BS [a free boot manager distributed with FreeBSD] from:
    ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/tools/osbs135.exe Or (newer)
    from: http://www.prz.tu-berlin.de/~wolf/os-bs.html

    Assuming you've already got Linux installed and enough free space for
    Solaris, go ahead and install the latter. Solaris then becomes the
    Active partition. Follow that installation with OS-BS and configure to
    "set startup id", which changes the Active partition on-the-fly.

    OS-BS comes in a newer, commercial version, that I use, called System
    Selector in the US, De'marreur in France, and Boot Manager elsewhere.
    See http://www.BootManager.com/

    System Selector needs a small FAT or FAT32 partition to install on.
    You also need to either boot a version of DOS or Windows to read the
    install files on the CD-ROM drive. Note that this partition doesn't
    need to be bootable or active--it is only used to hold files used by
    System Selector. System Selector replaces the previous boot block in
    the MFT and boots directly from the drive's MFT.

    When System Selector's installation menu comes up, you won't see
    Solaris listed among the selections under the "System" tab, as you
    most other systems that may be on your system, such as Windows or
    Linux. Instead, go to the "Partitions" tab and select the partition
    marked "Linux Swap." This is actually the Solaris Partition (both
    Solaris and Linux Swap partitions share the same code, 83 hex). Select
    it and under the "Properties" tab make sure you check "Assign active
    ID to this system [partition] before booting."

    Update: An open-source solution, GAG,
    http://raster.cibermillennium.com/gageng.htm provides a graphical boot
    menu which works with Solaris Intel and other Intel-based operating
    systems.
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (9.9) How can I boot both Solaris/x86 and Win NT on the same disk?

    Here's one way of doing it. Solaris/x86 requires it's partition to be
    active and uses it's own boot manager with it hard-coded to boot to
    Solaris on timeouts. If you want to use NT's boot manager or default
    to another operating system, it usually requires installing both
    operating systems on separate disks or using a third-party product,
    such as System Commander, that makes the partition "Active" on the fly
    This solution, described here by Andrew Mickish, is to make a boot
    floppy:

    Although the Solaris x86 installation manual makes it sound like all
    you have to do is partition your disks to get multiple operating
    systems to work, I found that this was not the case. To get a dual
    boot of Solaris and NT on the same hard drive, without using the
    Solaris default boot manager, you have to use a floppy boot disk to
    help start one of the OSes. Here is how I got NT and Solaris working
    on the same disk.

    The following fdisk partitioning causes Solaris to boot from the hard
    drive, yet allows you to boot to NT if you insert a floppy disk with
    the NT boot loader:

    +--------------------------------------------------+
    | Solaris [Active, for Solaris] |
    | C: PRI-DOS (FAT) [Active, for NT] |
    | D: EXT-DOS (FAT) |
    +--------------------------------------------------+

    Partitioning: The Solaris partition should be created during the
    Solaris installation, using Solaris's FDISK. The remaining partitions
    should be created during installation of NT.

    Active partition: You must set the Solaris partition to be ACTIVE in
    order to make it boot to Solaris. NT does not have to be active to
    boot. Use a DOS boot disk with FDISK to quickly change which partition
    is active.

    Boot disk: After setting the NT partition to be active, you still need
    the NT boot loader on a floppy disk in order to direct the PC to the
    second partition. (Usually the boot loader is on the primary partition
    of the hard drive, but that partition is Solaris and unreadable to
    NT.) Your floppy directs the boot process to the right partition by
    using a BOOT.INI file that says where the NT kernel can be found:

    [boot loader]
    timeout=30
    default=multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(2)\WINNT
    [operating systems]
    multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(2)\WINNT="Windows NT Workstation Version 4.00"

    multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(2)\WINNT="Windows NT Workstation Version 4.00
    [VGA mode]" /basevideo /sos

    Note: The numbering of partitions is one-based, so the C: partition in
    the diagram above is in partition #2.

    Please send comments and suggestions to edu

    [Thanks to Andrew Mickish]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (9.10) How do I mount a DOS partition from the hard drive?

    mount -F pcfs /dev/dsk/c0t0d0p0:1 /mnt # SCSI
    mount -F pcfs /dev/dsk/c0d0p0:1 /mnt # ATAPI

    Where c0 is the controller number.
    t0 is the target (SCSI ID number) (omit for ATAPI)
    d0 is always 0 for SCSI, the drive # for ATAPI
    p0 is the partition (p0 is the entire disk, or p1 - p4)
    /mnt is the mount point
    :1 is the logical drive (c - z or 1 - 24)

    You can use the normal UNIX commands to copy files, 'cp', etc., after
    that to move the data. DOS filenames are in the old 8.3 format (lower
    case) for Solaris 2.5.1, in long filename format (lower case) for
    Solaris 2.6, and in long filename format (mixed case, with optional
    lower case only) for Solaris 7 and higher.

    Note: The "mount -F pcfs . . ." command won't mount a FAT16 partition
    if it was fdisk-ed and format-ted with MS Windows 9x/ME/NT/2K/XP (at
    least for Solaris 2.6 and earlier. Any reports with Solaris 7/8?). Use
    DOS 6.x. HPFS (OS/2), FAT64 (Win NT), or NTFS (Win NT/2K/XP)
    partitions are not mountable under Solaris at all. FAT32 (Win
    9x/ME/2K) are mountable with Solaris 7. There's some reports of not
    being able to mount FAT32 partitions if it's not the first partition.

    To mount the partitions automatically, put something like this in
    /etc/vfstab:

    #device device mount FS fsck mount
    #to mount to fsck point type pass at boot
    /dev/dsk/c0d0p0:1 - /c pcfs - yes -
    /dev/dsk/c0d1p0:1 - /d pcfs - yes -

    This mounts the DOS partitions (assuming it's the first partition) on
    /c and /d, respectively, on startup. For more info, see "man pcfs"

    [From Bob Palowoda's Solaris 2.4 x86 FAQ]

    Note: p0 refers to the first primary partition and p1, p2, . . .
    refers to the logical DOS partitions found in the extended DOS
    partition. Solaris/x86 does NOT support DOS directly in the 2nd, 3rd,
    or 4th primary partition of a disk. See BugID 1170107. Furthermore,
    Solaris/x86 does NOT support more than one Solaris fdisk partition on
    a physical disk nor more than 8 Solaris "slices" on a Solaris fdisk
    partition.

    [Thanks to Randy J. Parker, Norma Adamson, Rob Duarte, and Danny
    Huynh]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (9.11) Does PartitionMagic and BootMagic understand Solaris
    partitions?

    Yes and no. BootMagic can be setup to boot Solaris partitions, since
    it dynamically marks the partition as active. The setup, however,
    doesn't automatically recognize these partitions as Solaris (but as
    Linux Swap partitions).

    PowerQuest's PartitionMagic can copy and move Solaris Partitions, with
    a low-level sector-by-sector copy. It cannot enlarge or shrink the
    Solaris Partition, which actually contain multiple "slices" of various
    Solaris ufs file systems. Furthermore, after a partition copy, the
    boot block needs to be restored. See the question elsewhere in this
    FAQ "How do I restore the Solaris boot block without reinstalling?"

    Grant Chivers provides these instructions to install Solaris on a
    Windows/Linux system with the PowerQuest Partition Editor:
    * Before installing Solaris use Ptedit, that comes with PowerQuest's
    Partition Magic, to write out a copy of all the data about the
    existing partitions because a Solaris install will change all
    this.
    * If there are Linux partitions (type 83) I change them to "Hidden
    ext2 partitions" (type 93), then reverse this after Solaris
    installation completed.
    * If installing Solaris to free disk space, I suggest you first
    create a partition (any type, such as OS/2) on the free disk space
    to get the hard disk data settings that will be used for the
    Solaris partition. Then delete the partition to regain free disk
    space (or use the Solaris fdisk when it prompts during install).
    * Install Solaris. Ensure that Solaris fdisk chooses the correct
    partition to format.
    * Reboot to Solaris again to finish setup, etc.
    * Reboot to DOS and run Ptedit again and adjust to previous
    configuration with the new Solaris partition being type 82.
    * Change the Linux partition back to 83 if it was changed
    previously.
    * Exit System commander and use DOS fdisk to check the origional
    active partition is regained.
    * Configure your bootloader.
    * I use V-Com's System Commander as a boot menu (lilo or Ntloader
    could be used instead but they require a little more
    configuration).
    * Reboot and it all should work.
    * Similarly, if installing Linux with an existing Solaris partition,
    change the partition type to another type (e.g., OS/2), install
    Linux and then change the Solaris partition back to type 83.
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (9.12) How do I access a DOS-format diskette from Solaris?

    Using volume management, type "volcheck". This forces Solaris to poll
    the diskette drive (and other drives). The diskette drive isn't polled
    automatically (unlike the CD-ROM), as it would quickly wear it out.
    You should see something like this typing "mount":

    /floppy/unnamed_floppy on /vol/dev/diskette0/unnamed_floppy read/write
    on Wed Jan 20 09:05:44 1999

    To unmount using volume management, type "eject". After a message, you
    can manually eject the floppy safely.

    You can also mount the diskette in a similar way to hard drive
    partitions without using volume management (the old way):

    mount -F pcfs /dev/diskette /mnt

    Don't forget to turn of the volume management before you try to do
    this from the command line or you'll get a "device busy" message.
    "/etc/init.d/volmgt stop" will stop the volume manager. To restart the
    volume manager, "/etc/init.d/volmgt start".

    [From Bob Palowoda's Solaris 2.4 x86 FAQ and Casper Dik's Solaris 2
    FAQ]

    The GNU mtools package allows access of DOS diskettes without being
    root. The diskette isn't mounted, but instead special commands with
    the prefix m, such as mcopy, mdir, mdel, etc. are available.
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (9.13) Does Solaris mount and recognize MS Windows 9x/ME/2K/XP
    partitions with long file names (VFAT)?

    Solaris 2.6 and above uses the "long" (VFAT) file names, but earlier
    versions of Solaris use the "short" (DOS/FAT/8.3) file name (for
    example, "progra~1"). Solaris 2.6 recognizes the case (e.g. "Program
    Files/"), which may be optionally folded to lower case ("program
    files") with the foldcase mount option. Earlier "Solari" folds DOS
    file names to lower case only. VFAT refers to the file naming
    convention and is completely separate from FAT16/FAT32 (see a earlier
    question for that).

    [Thanks to Nelson Chan]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (9.14) How can I make my Solaris files easily available to MS Windows
    9x/ME/NT/2K/XP on a network?

    Solaris PC NetLink provides "a complete set of Windows NT Network
    Services," which includes SAMBA-type NT naming, file, print,
    directory, and security services for Windows 3.11/95/98/NT clients. It
    is based on Microsoft NT 4 code licensed via AT&T ("Advanced Server
    for Unix"). It used to be available for Solaris/x86, but is now
    available only for Sun Enterprise servers.

    In any case I prefer SAMBA, a robust, open source package that
    provides SMB services (aka MS Windows networking) from UNIX. This
    allows LAN-Manager-type browsing and "Connect Network Drive," and
    provides access to UNIX print servers. SAMBA can act as a file, print,
    browser master, and WINS servers, but not as a domain controller
    (that's in the works). SAMBA also serves files faster than NetLink (or
    Windows, for that matter). However, NetLink implements SMB better than
    SAMBA, since it uses Microsoft-licensed code, while SAMBA must
    reverse-engineer the code. For the Samba FAQ, sources, binaries, and
    other information, see the SAMBA web page at:
    http://samba.anu.edu.au/samba/

    Sun has a commercial product, Solstice LM Manager, that works (poorly)
    with MS LAN Manager/SMB and links in with NIS/DNS.
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (9.15) How can I make my Solaris files easily available to an Apple
    Macintosh on a network?

    Use CAP, an excellent open source AppleTalk server software for UNIX.
    The Columbia AppleTalk Package (CAP) implements the AppleTalk protocol
    stack on UNIX The main applications provide an AppleShare 2.1
    compatible server (aufs), a LaserWriter Spooler (lwsrv) and a program
    to print to LaserWriters (papif). For more information, see:
    http://www.cs.mu.oz.au/appletalk/cap.html
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (9.16) How do I access a Mac diskette from Solaris?

    Use a emulator package like Mae from Apple (I understand Mae is not
    supported and has some MT-unsafe bugs). For "sneakernet," you can also
    use a DOS diskette, as both Solaris and Apple support these.
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (9.17) What is WABI?

    WABI is "Windows Application Binary Interface." WABI 2.2 (which ships
    with Solaris 2.5.1) runs old 16-bit native MS Windows 3.x programs. No
    support is planned for 32-bit MS Windows 9x/ME/NT/2K/XP programs.

    Support for WABI has been dropped starting with Solaris 7. and is
    replaced by SunPCi (see the next question).

    [Adapted from Casper Dik's Solaris 2 FAQ]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (9.18) Can I use SunPCi on Solaris/x86?

    No. SunPCi is an add-on card and software for Solaris on SPARC only.
    SunPC emulates a PC with the card and Caldera's "DR-DOS" allowing
    Windows 3.1/9x to be installed on top of it. The card has a 300 MHz
    K6-2 AMD processor and RAM. It emulates hard and floppy drives, serial
    ports, SuperVGA, mouse, keyboard, etc. Generally, SunPCi or it's older
    cousin, SunPC, emulates the PC environment OK, although it performs
    more slowly than a straight PC (your mileage may vary). Software that
    requires a parallel port hardware key (dongle) won't work.
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (9.19) Will Linux programs run on Solaris 2/x86?

    The Lxrun program, originally written for SCO, is now available on
    Solaris/x86. The Lxrun emulator allows one to execute Linux binaries,
    both in ELF and a.out Linux formats. Linux ext2 read-only filesystem
    support from Solaris (mount/unmount) is included with ext2fs.tar.gz.

    To install, first install package SFWlxrun from the Solaris Software
    Companion CD. Setup or mount a ext2fs filesystem, say at /linux (as
    explained in a question below on ext2fs).

    To use, run programs or shells prefixed with lxrun. For example:
    $ uname -a
    SunOS dany.drydog.com 5.8 Generic_108529-06 i86pc i386 i86pc
    $ lxrun /linux/bin/rpm -q redhat-release
    redhat-release-6.2-1
    $ lxrun /linux/bin/uname -a
    SunOS dany.drydog.com 5.8 Generic_108529-06 i86pc unknown

    To avoid prefixing linux filenames with "/linux/" (or wherever your
    ext2fs is mounted), and setup a PATHMAP file (to map Linux filenames
    to Solaris names). For Sun's SFWlxrun version of lxrun, type this, as
    root, to set it up:
    (cd /opt/sfw/lib; cp -p PATHMAP-style2 PATHMAP)
    For other builds of lxrun, PATHMAP may be at /usr/local/lxrun/PATHMAP.
    The file location can also be changed with environment variable
    $PATHMAP.

    For more information see the following links:
    * The Solaris Lxrun Technical Overview (FAQ) is at:
    http://developers.Sun.COM/solaris/articles/lxrun/
    * And another Sun article is at:
    http://www.Sun.COM/linux/lxrun/
    * The Lxrun home page is at
    http://www.ugcs.caltech.edu/~steven/lxrun/
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (9.20) How can I get the DOS and UNIX clock to agree on Solaris/x86?

    After installation, run the command /usr/sbin/rtc -z $TZ, where $TZ is
    your timezone. The default root crontab runs /usr/sbin/rtc -c daily.
    That way your clock will give the proper time whether you boot Solaris
    or MS-DOS/MS Windows.

    If you're running Windows NT and find the clock "overadjusted" twice a
    year (that is, it gains or loses an extra hour), you should comment
    out (with a "#") the "rtc" line in file /var/spool/cron/crontabs/root.

    [Adapted from Casper Dik's Solaris 2 FAQ]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (9.21) Is Solaris x86 able to execute Solaris SPARC applications?

    There's no way to run a SPARC binary on an x86 machine unless you
    wrote an emulator for the SPARC CPU and ran it.

    [Thanks to Doug McIntyre]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (9.22) Will my old applications from SVR3 or SCO run on Solaris 2/x86?

    Solaris x86 has an emulation mode that should run the majority of
    well-behaved SVR3 (including SCO UNIX), and SCO Xenix binaries. Most
    SVR3 stuff appears to work under Solaris 2.4.

    Applications from any other vendor's standards-conforming 386/486 SVR4
    should also run. The main standard being iBCS (Intel Binary
    Compatibility Standard).

    However, some vendors have made incompatible changes to their SVR4
    release and programs linked on those versions may not work. Future
    versions of Solaris 2.x for Intel will address some/most of those
    incompatibilities. UNIXWare is one of the offenders.

    [From Casper Dik's Solaris 2 FAQ]

    Linux binaries will run with the assistance of lxrun.
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (9.23) Will my application from Solaris/SPARC work on Solaris/x86? I
    have the source.

    Yes and no. Generally applications that don't make assumptions about
    computer architecture will work. That is, code shouldn't depend on
    structure or union alignments, or in what order a number appears in a
    word ("big endian" SPARC or "little endian" Intel). Don't use
    functions labeled SPARC or x86 only in the man pages. In other words,
    "well-behaved" C (or other language) programs should recompile fine.
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (9.24) Can I access Solaris/x86 partitions from Linux?

    Yes. Read-only access is available. You need to have Linux 2.1.x or
    greater. To see if your Linux kernel recognizes Solaris partitions,
    type the following on Linux: dmesg | grep solaris

    You should get something like this:
    hda: hda1 hda2 <solaris: [s0] hda5 [s1] hda6 [s2] hda7 [s3] hda8
    [s5] hda9 [s6] hda10 [s7] hda11 >

    This says that Solaris lives in the 2nd partition (hda2), slices 0 to

    hda11.

    To mount a partition, type something like this:
    mount -r -t ufs -o ro,ufstype=sunx86 /dev/hda5 /mnt

    This will mount the root slice (s0) on /mnt read-only.

    Warning: Softlinks that are relative to root (e.g., /usr/local
    pointing to /local) will point to the wrong place. To avoid this
    problem, change these links in Solaris to relative soft-links (e.g.,
    /usr/local to ../local).

    This can be automated with /etc/fstab. If you don't want the
    partitions mounted at boot, add ",noauto" after "defaults,ro" (no
    space). If you want non-root users to be able to mount partitions, add
    ",user" (careful!):

    # /etc/fstab
    # . . .
    #Device Mount FS Fsck Mount at
    #to mount point type Options pass boot # Slice
    /dev/hda5 /solaris ufs defaults,ro,ufstype=sun 0 0 # s0
    /dev/hda8 /solaris/var ufs defaults,ro,ufstype=sun 0 0 # s6
    /dev/hda9 /solaris/opt ufs defaults,ro,ufstype=sun 0 0 # s3
    /dev/hda10 /solaris/usr ufs defaults,ro,ufstype=sun 0 0 # s5
    /dev/hda11 /solaris/export/home ufs defaults,ro,ufstype=sun 0 0 # s7
    # Note: slice s2, by convention, indicates the whole disk

    If, when you type "dmesg" above, you don't see Solaris partitions
    recognized, you might have to rebuild your Linux kernel. Be sure to
    specify "y" in /usr/src/linux/.config when you type "make config":
    CONFIG_UFS_FS=y
    CONFIG_SOLARIS_x86_PARTITION=y

    Linux 2.2 has experimental write support to Solaris partitions. If you
    get this message when mounting in read-write mode: "...
    ufs_read_super: fs needs fsck" then UFS function ufs_read_super
    somehow decided the fs isn't clean, and therefore set the RDONLY bit.
    Type something like this to re-mount in read/write mode (replace
    "hda5" with your file system):
    mount -o remount,rw /dev/hda5

    There's another linux kernel configuration question,
    CONFIG_SMD_DISKLABEL, that applies only to Sparc Solaris disks, which
    are in yet another format. The answer to that question doesn't matter
    for Solaris/x86 filesystems.
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (9.25) Can I access Linux (ext2fs) partitions from Solaris?

    Yes. The Lxrun program (see the question elsewhere above on Lxrun)
    includes software for Linux ext2 read-only filesystem support from
    Solaris (mount/unmount) is in file ext2fs.tar.gz.
    1. Obtain the ext2fs.tar.gz file. Make sure you have the version
    dated July 16, 2000 (115097 bytes). The earlier version dated
    April 23, 2000 (111226 bytes) never worked, at least for me (I use
    Solaris 8). You can obtain the latter (working) version from
    ftp://sun.drydog.com/pub/solaris/ext2fs.2000.7.16.tar.gz. If
    you get "ext2fs: undefined symbol 'vfs_devsearch'" messages in
    /var/adm/messages when you try and mount, you have the earlier
    (broken) version.
    2. Untar file "gzcat ext2fs.tar.gz | tar xvf -", and either rebuild
    from source (preferred) or use the prebuilt binaries.
    3. Become root and install the files under directory ext2fs/i386:
    cd ext2fs
    mkdir -p /usr/man/man7fs
    cp ext2fs.7fs /usr/man/man7fs
    cp mount_ext2fs.1m /usr/man/man1m
    cd i386
    /usr/sbin/install -m 755 -u root:sys ext2fs /usr/kernel/fs/
    /usr/sbin/install -m 755 -u root:sys -d /usr/lib/fs/ext2fs/
    /usr/sbin/install -m 555 -u root:bin mount /usr/lib/fs/ext2fs/
    /usr/sbin/modunload -i 0 # remove old ext2fs module, if present
    4. Make your mount point: "mkdir /linux"
    5. Find your Linux partition and try and mount it. For SCSI, mount it
    similar to this:
    /usr/sbin/mount -r -F ext2fs /dev/dsk/c0t0d0p1 /linux
    For ATAPI, mount it similar to this (no "t0"):
    /usr/sbin/mount -r -F ext2fs /dev/dsk/c0d0p1 /linux
    "c0d0p1" indicates fdisk partition 1 (2nd partition) on disk 0 of
    ATAPI controller 0. See the question above on mounting DOS
    filesystems for decoding /dev/dsk/c* device names.
    6. If you installed the ext2fs correctly and specified the correct
    partition, you should see something like this from mount, modinfo,
    and ls. (My linux partition is on the 2nd disk, 3rd partition.)
    # mount | grep /linux
    /linux on /dev/dsk/c0d1p2 read only/setuid/dev=1980052 on Sat Mar 31 14:57 2001
    # modinfo | grep ext2fs
    186 fe9688f1 5e98 19 1 ext2fs (Linux Second Extended Filesystem)
    # ls /linux
    bin etc lib proc sbin tmp
    boot home lost+found root var usr
    dev include mnt
    7. Once you found and mounted the correct linux partition, add and
    add an entry to /etc/vfstab similar to one of the following. For
    SCSI, it might look like this:
    /dev/dsk/c0t0d0p1 - /linux ext2fs - no ro
    For ATAPI, it might look like this (no "t0"):
    /dev/dsk/c0d0p1 - /linux ext2fs - no ro
    (Use "yes" instead of "no" if you want it mounted automatically at
    boot).
    8. Repeat for other linux filesystems, if desired.

    Once you mount a ext2fs filesystem, you can execute Linux programs
    using lxrun (see the question on lxrun, above).

    For further information, see the ext2fs(7fs) and mount_ext2fs(1m) man
    pages you installed above.
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (9.26) What are some books on Windows NT/Solaris integration?

    The best book is, IMHO: David Gunter, Steven Burnett, and Lola Gunter,
    Windows NT and UNIX Integration Guide (Osborne McGraw-Hill,
    1997), ISBN 0-07882395-1,
    http://sun.drydog.com/bookstore/#0078823951

    Also see the question above on SAMBA.
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (9.27) How can I view MS Word files in Solaris?

    Multiple applications support viewing MS Word files. None are perfect,
    as MS Word file format is a trade secret and changes constantly.

    StarOffice, produced by a German subsidiary of Sun, supports MS Word,
    basic PowerPoint, Excel files, and other formats. StarOffice 6 is
    available for US $75.95 (UK £52.99) at computer stores and
    http://www.Sun.COM/staroffice/. StarOffice is my preferred word
    processor because it's available on multiple platforms (Solaris x86 &
    SPARC, Linux, MS Windows) and because it has a familiar MS Office-type
    interface.

    OpenOffice, an open-source spin-off from StarOffice, is free. It
    doesn't contain some components of StarOffice (such as some fonts and
    image libraries), but is perfectly acceptible for casual use. Solaris
    x86 binaries are available, as are SPARC, Windows, and Linux.
    Experimental "developer" Apple Mac OSx binaries are available.

    AbiWord is also available for Solaris Intel. AbiWord only does
    word processing, but I understand it has all the basic functionality.
    I have no personal experience with it however. It's available in
    source form only, so you have to build it yourself (download the gcc
    compiler). Good luck! If anyone has had success or experience with
    AbiWord on Solaris Intel, email me at <com>.

    Corel WordPerfect 8, although getting a little "long in the tooth"
    (outdated), it is still available. WordPerfect for UNIX supports
    WordPerfect, Word (old and new), HTML, RTF, FrameMaker, Applix, and
    several other doent formats. Price varies and it's not cheap.
    There's no Sparc Intel binary available, but some people run Linux
    Intel binary on Solaris using lxrun software (see elsewhere in this
    fax). See http://www.corel.com/wpunix/

    The VistaSource's Applixware Office suite can read Word files, among
    other formats, as above, and comes with a spreadsheet and other
    applications. I still prefer WordPerfect for word processing, but
    Applix Office offers a broader array of applications. Applix Office is
    also getting "long in the tooth." See
    http://www.vistasource.com/products/axware/

    You can also try wv (free), which converts Word 8 (Office 97), but not
    older, Word files to HTML. WordView is available in source form
    (mostly Perl and some C) from http://www.wvWare.com/

    For the above software, more complicated Word format files cannot be
    converted, especially those saved with "Quick Save" enabled. Be aware
    that these office suites seem to require systems with 128MB of memory
    or more to perform reasonably (in my experience).

    Finally, you CAN'T use Sun's PC File Viewer. It's available (and free)
    only for the SPARC-resident Solaris 2.6 PC File Viewer is Sun's
    relabeled version of Inso Corp.'s (http://www.inso.com/)
    QuickView Plus. See
    http://www.Sun.COM/desktop/products/software/pcviewer.html
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (9.28) I downloaded Internet Explorer (or Media Player) but it doesn't
    install. What's wrong?

    Microsoft Internet Explorer for Solaris or Microsoft Media Player for
    Solaris are available only for the SPARC architectures. You'll get
    this message if you try to install it with ie4setup: "unexpected ( on
    line one" or "syntax error at line 1: '('"

    See the next question on Netscape.
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (9.29) Where can I get Netscape or other web browsers for Solaris
    Intel?

    Netscape comes with Solaris 8. For Solaris 7 or earlier or for the
    "domestic" version with 128-bit (high) encryption, you can download it
    from
    ftp://ftp.netscape.com/pub/communicator/english/4.79/unix/support
    ed/sunos551_x86/ This address changes slightly for each language and
    version. Or try http://www.netscape.com/download/

    Netscape is available in pkgadd/webstart formats from Sun (including
    128-bit encryption) from http://www.Sun.COM/solaris/netscape/
    This seems to be better integrated with Solaris (especially Java),
    although they are usually a point release or two behind. There's also
    a FAQ here.

    Mozilla. Mozilla is like Netscape 6, but more cutting-edge (and
    slightly more buggy), but I prefer it. Mozilla allows you to disable
    pop-up adds and it doesn't have the AOL add-on junk either. Mozilla
    is, however, missing a spell checker. Solaris x86 binaries are
    available at http://www.mozilla.org/releases/ For troubleshooting
    tips with Solaris Mozilla, see
    http://www.mozilla.org/unix/solaris.html

    Internet Explorer is available only for SPARC Solaris and will never
    be available for Solaris x86 (see the previous question).

    Opera Software will release "soon" (June 2001) a beta version of the
    Opera web browser for Solaris x86. It's faster and uses less memory
    than Netscape or Mozilla, When it's released, it will come in two
    versions, a (free) version with ads and a version without ads, but you
    pay money for it. See http://www.opera.com/
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (9.30) Can I mount other ufs disks, say from BSDi/FreeBSD, and vice
    versa?

    Maybe. First, although Solaris, BSDi, FreeBSD, and NetBSD share a
    common-heritage file system, the Berkeley-style ufs, Solaris has made
    extensions. The 32-bit UID field has been modified in Solaris to be a
    pointer to a parallel "Shadow inode" with Solaris ACL information.
    Also, the superblock has an additional inode field in Solaris and 2
    fields have different byte swappings.

    Reportedly, you can mount, say, zip disks from FreeBSD, on Solaris by
    doing a fsck on them before mounting. Fsck makes these fields Solaris-
    compatible. Your mileage may vary and you should test this (in both
    directions) before trying this on live data.
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (9.31) How can I use a disk partition on Solaris 2.x which was
    previously dedicated to MS Windows 9x/ME/NT/2K/XP (or other OS) as
    dual boot?

    On Solaris 2.x, use fdisk to find your disk partition table. For
    example, on an ATAPI drive,
    # fdisk /dev/rdsk/c0d0p0
    would show something like the following:
    Total disk size is 524 cylinders
    Cylinder size is 16065 (512 byte) blocks
    Cylinders
    Partition Status Type Start End Length %
    ========= ====== ============ ===== === ====== ===
    1 Solaris 0 260 261 50
    2 Active Solaris 261 522 262 50

    Where "Partition 1" was used for Windows 95. It was deleted and
    recreated with "Solaris" type.

    Make a ufs filesystem on the partition. (You can not subdivide this
    fdisk partition into Solaris slices). For example,
    # mkfs -F ufs /dev/rdsk/c0d0p1 4192965
    where number 4192965 = 261 * 16065 is the total number of blocks on
    this partition, calculated as the cylinder length on this partition
    (261 from the above partition table) times the cylinder size (16065
    blocks as shown in the header of the partition table.)

    Mount the filesystem as usual. For example:
    # mount /dev/dsk/c0d0p1 /export/home

    [Thanks to Michael Wang. Reference: Sun Microsystems INFODOC ID:
    13142]
    __________________________________________________ _______________

    (9.32) How can I convert a DOS/Windows text file to a Unix text file?

    dos2unix <dosformatfile> <unixformatfile>
    unix2dos <unixformatfile> <dosformatfile>
    The former removes the ^M and ^Z characters and the latter adds them.
    See man dos2unix and man unix2dos for details.
    __________________________________________________ _______________
    Dan Guest

  2. #2

    Default Re: Solaris x86 FAQ 1/2

    A couple of updates I've noted to some of the older items in the FAQ:

    Dan Anderson <com> writes in alt.solaris.x86:
    |(3.6) What UNIX-like operating systems are available on x86?
    |
    | * Interactive UNIX, SVR3.2-based
    | (http://www.Sun.COM/software/ius/)

    If you go to the web page, you'll see Sun no longer sells this.

    |The following two books by Janice Winsor cover Solaris 2.6 for SPARC
    |and x86. They are from Sun Microsystems/Macmillan Technical
    |Publishing. I find they cover the subject matter too lightly, but they
    |may be good for beginners: Solaris System Administrator's Guide,
    |2d ed. (1998), ISBN 1-57870-040-X,
    |http://sun.drydog.com/bookstore/#157870040x, and Solaris
    |Advanced System Administrator's Guide, 2d ed., ISBN 1-57870-039-6,
    |http://sun.drydog.com/bookstore/#1578700396,

    These have been updated for newwer Solaris releases.

    |(3.10) What's new for the future Solaris?

    http://www.sun.com/softwareexpress has previews available for download.

    |(4.2) What hardware is supported by Solaris 2.x for Intel?
    |Solaris x86 is the version that runs on Intel-based PCs and servers.
    |Requirements vary to release, but generally a 80486 processor or
    |better is required with an ISA or PCI bus, 16 MB of memory, and
    |200-500 MB Disk. Many multi-processor boards are supported. You must
    |have a CD-ROM drive or access to NFS over the network to install and a
    |1.44 MB floppy disk drive.

    Solaris 8 & later no longer require a boot floppy if you can boot from
    CDROM, and at some point along the line (don't remember exact version)
    PXE network boot support was added so you don't even need that.
    Solaris 9 drops 486 support, and requires quite a bit more than 16Mb RAM
    and a full install can take multiple GB of disk.

    It also runs on Intel-compatible CPU's from AMD.

    |(4.9) How can I get a "free" copy of Solaris?
    |A "free" copy of Solaris (where "free" means the license is free--you
    |pay only media, shipping, and handling cost), is available from
    |http://wwws.sun.com/software/solaris/binaries/ For Solaris 9, the
    |cost is US $95 for the media kit (CDROMs) or US $20 to download. For
    |Solaris 8, the cost is US $45 for the media kit or US $20 to download

    It should be noted there are more restrictive terms to qualify for the
    free release now, such as restrictions on number of CPUs and commercial
    usage.

    |(4.15) Is Microsoft Intellimouse or other scrolling mice supported?
    |
    |Partly (with native XSun). Configure it as a 3-button PS/2 mouse. The
    |wheel won't scroll anything, but pressing the wheel down is the same
    |as pressing the middle button. The same holds true for Logitech's
    |MouseMan Wheel mice.

    Wheel events can be obtained with Xsun by replacing the Xsun mouse
    module and Solaris mouse driver with one of the ones from:
    PS/2: http://www.tools.de/solaris/ps2wheel/
    USB: http://www.bolthole.com/solaris/drivers/usb-usbsm.html


    |(6.38) How to I use Linux NIC drivers for Solaris Intel?
    |
    |Sun has released (9/2000) a free network driver porting kit to port
    |Linux PCI-based network drivers to Solaris Intel. The kit includes, as
    |examples, ported Linux drivers for the Intel EEPro100 and the Digital
    |"Tulip" 2104x/2114x chip (a reliable chip used by the Netgear
    |FA-310-TX, SMC EtherPower, Kingston EtherX, D-Link DFE, and other
    |lower-cost cards) For further information, see
    |http://www.sun.com/solaris/ndpkit.html

    This kit was quickly pulled and never re-released, nor is it likely to
    ever be.

    |(6.39) How to I add color to "ls" or "vi"?

    You can also get color from the tcsh builtin ls, if you use the
    tcsh shell (included in Solaris 8 and later), by simply doing:
    alias ls ls-F ; set color=ls-F
    Search for "color" in the tcsh man page for details.

    |If color output still doesn't appear, for either of these, make sure
    |your terminal emulator supports color (e.g., dtterm) and that your

    Solaris /usr/openwin/bin/xterm supports color starting in Solaris 9,
    and gnome-terminal from Sun's GNOME release also supports color.

    |(8.2)How can I use a XFree86 video driver with XSun?

    Additional drivers using the porting kit are available from:
    http://www.tools.de/solaris/

    |(8.3) How do I install XFree86 on Solaris?

    |Starting with Solaris 2.6, Sun changed the way X client communicates
    |with X server when both the client and X server are on the local
    |machine (DISPLAY variable is set to ":0"). In short, instead of using
    |/tmp/.X11-unix, the client connects to the X server using
    |/tmp/.X11-pipe. Since XFree86 doesn't support /tmp/.X11-pipe, CDE will
    |not work out-of-the-box on the local display under the XFree86 server.

    This should no longer be true. The Solaris libX11 (which CDE uses)
    should fallback to /tmp/.X11-unix if /tmp/.X11-pipe doesn't work.
    This was fixed in Solaris 7 and a patch to Solaris 2.6.

    |(8.6) Where can I get GNOME or KDE packages for Solaris/x86?

    GNOME is included in the main OS installation in Solaris 9 8/03 and
    later.

    |(8.7) Are TrueType fonts supported in Solaris?
    |
    |Yes, Xsun supports them. Use the Font Administrator GUI,
    |/usr/dt/bin/sdtfontadm, to add them to the server's list of fonts.

    Also see http://www.bolthole.com/solaris/verdana.font.txt

    |(8.13) How do I make the NumLock key go on automatically when I log
    |in?
    |
    |Add xset led 2 to your CDE startup file, $HOME/.dtprofile. To turn it
    |off, use xset -led 2 Similarly, for CapsLock, use xset led 4

    I don't believe this actually works. (At least it doesn't on Solaris
    sparc and the code to handle this is the same on both.)

    |(9.14) How can I make my Solaris files easily available to MS Windows
    |9x/ME/NT/2K/XP on a network?
    |
    |In any case I prefer SAMBA, a robust, open source package that
    |provides SMB services (aka MS Windows networking) from UNIX.

    Samba is included with Solaris 9 and later.

    |(9.15) How can I make my Solaris files easily available to an Apple
    |Macintosh on a network?

    Or upgrade to MacOS X which includes native support for NFS & SMB.


    |(9.16) How do I access a Mac diskette from Solaris?
    |
    |Use a emulator package like Mae from Apple (I understand Mae is not
    |supported and has some MT-unsafe bugs). For "sneakernet," you can also
    |use a DOS diskette, as both Solaris and Apple support these.

    MAE is long-dead and it would be amazing if you could find a copy today.

    |(9.17) What is WABI?
    |
    |WABI is "Windows Application Binary Interface." WABI 2.2 (which ships
    |with Solaris 2.5.1) runs old 16-bit native MS Windows 3.x programs. No
    |support is planned for 32-bit MS Windows 9x/ME/NT/2K/XP programs.
    |
    |Support for WABI has been dropped starting with Solaris 7. and is
    |replaced by SunPCi (see the next question).

    WABI is long-dead and it would be amazing if you could find a copy today.

    |(9.27) How can I view MS Word files in Solaris?
    |
    |The VistaSource's Applixware Office suite can read Word files, among
    |other formats, as above, and comes with a spreadsheet and other
    |applications. I still prefer WordPerfect for word processing, but
    |Applix Office offers a broader array of applications. Applix Office is
    |also getting "long in the tooth." See
    |http://www.vistasource.com/products/axware/

    ApplixOffice is now "Anyware Office":
    http://www.vistasource.com/page.php?id=7

    |(9.29) Where can I get Netscape or other web browsers for Solaris
    |Intel?
    |
    |Mozilla. Mozilla is like Netscape 6, but more cutting-edge (and
    |slightly more buggy), but I prefer it. Mozilla allows you to disable
    |pop-up adds and it doesn't have the AOL add-on junk either. Mozilla
    |is, however, missing a spell checker. Solaris x86 binaries are
    |available at http://www.mozilla.org/releases/ For troubleshooting
    |tips with Solaris Mozilla, see
    |http://www.mozilla.org/unix/solaris.html

    Sun's supported Mozilla release can be downloaded from:
    http://wwws.sun.com/software/solaris/browser/

    |Internet Explorer is available only for SPARC Solaris and will never
    |be available for Solaris x86 (see the previous question).

    MS has killed IE for Solaris SPARC as well now.


    --
    __________________________________________________ ______________________
    Alan Coopersmith calberkeley.org
    http://www.CSUA.Berkeley.EDU/~alanc/ aka: COM
    Working for, but definitely not speaking for, Sun Microsystems, Inc.
    Alan Guest

  3. #3

    Default Re: Solaris x86 FAQ 1/2

    In article <bklds6$sd6$berkeley.edu>,
    Alan Coopersmith <calberkeley.org> wrote: 

    ..EDU affiliated individuals can obtain Solaris and a number of
    other software packages via the EduSoft program for free.

    <URL:http://www.sun.com/products-n-solutions/edu/promotions/edusoft/>

    John
    org
    John Guest

  4. #4

    Default Re: Solaris x86 FAQ 1/2

    EduSoft is not free, $495 USD. ScholarPac is. Compare
    http://www.sun.com/products-n-solutions/edu/promotions/edusoft/
    and http://www.sun.com/products-n-solutions/edu/promotions/scholar/


    John D Groenveld wrote: 
    >
    >
    > .EDU affiliated individuals can obtain Solaris and a number of
    > other software packages via the EduSoft program for free.
    >
    > <URL:http://www.sun.com/products-n-solutions/edu/promotions/edusoft/>
    >
    > John
    > org[/ref]

    Daryl Guest

  5. #5

    Default Re: Solaris x86 FAQ 1/2

    In article <bkn9bk$9qt$cc.umanitoba.ca>,
    Daryl Fonseca-Holt <umanitoba.ca> wrote: 

    You might want to fix your web browser.
    For months, EduSoft has had a link to the individual program.
    <URL:http://www.sun.com/products-n-solutions/edu/promotions/edusoft/>

    John
    org
    John Guest

  6. #6

    Default Re: Solaris x86 FAQ 1/2

    In alt.solaris.x86 Alan Coopersmith <calberkeley.org> wrote: 
    .... 
     

    ....which raises the question of what the terminfo entries look like for
    these, since they wouldn't match exactly.

    --
    Thomas E. ey
    http://ey.his.com
    ftp://ey.his.com
    Thomas Guest

  7. #7

    Default Re: Solaris x86 FAQ 1/2

    Thomas ey <radix.net> writes in alt.solaris.x86:
    |In alt.solaris.x86 Alan Coopersmith <calberkeley.org> wrote:
    |> |(6.39) How to I add color to "ls" or "vi"?
    |...
    |> |If color output still doesn't appear, for either of these, make sure
    |> |your terminal emulator supports color (e.g., dtterm) and that your
    |
    |> Solaris /usr/openwin/bin/xterm supports color starting in Solaris 9,
    |> and gnome-terminal from Sun's GNOME release also supports color.
    |
    |...which raises the question of what the terminfo entries look like for
    |these, since they wouldn't match exactly.

    I believe gnome-terminal claims to be xterm, and ends up breaking a
    few programs in the process (such as cscope from the SunONE compiler
    package).

    --
    __________________________________________________ ______________________
    Alan Coopersmith calberkeley.org
    http://www.CSUA.Berkeley.EDU/~alanc/ aka: COM
    Working for, but definitely not speaking for, Sun Microsystems, Inc.
    Alan Guest

  8. #8

    Default Re: Solaris x86 FAQ 1/2

    On Mon, 22 Sep 2003, Alan Coopersmith wrote:
     

    Yay. Another piece of quality freeware. :-(

    --
    Rich Teer, SCNA, SCSA

    President,
    Rite Online Inc.

    Voice: +1 (250) 979-1638
    URL: http://www.rite-online.net

    Rich Guest

  9. #9

    Default Re: Solaris x86 FAQ 1/2

    On Mon, 22 Sep 2003 20:12:45 +0000 (UTC), calberkeley.org wrote: 

    one might think that sun's QA team would make sure that a sun-distributed
    gnome-terminal, would be adjusted to set its termtype to
    "gnometerm" or some such, to fix such issues.



    --
    http://www.blastwave.org/ for solaris pre-packaged binaries with pkg-get
    Organized by the author of pkg-get
    [Trim the no-bots from my address to reply to me by email!]
    S.1618 http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d105:SN01618:D
    http://www.spamlaws.com/state/ca1.html
    Philip Guest

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